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… Human truths, however valuable they may seem, are always open to challenge, to revision, to refinement, to refutation, to repeal. Only the quest is eternal. - A. Geuŕard (1954). Russell and Burch The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, 1959. Replacement Reduction Refinement.

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Russell and Burch The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, 1959


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slide1
… Human truths, however valuable they may seem, are always open to challenge, to revision, to refinement, to refutation, to repeal. Only the quest is eternal.

- A. Geuŕard (1954)

russell and burch the principles of humane experimental technique 1959
Russell and BurchThe Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, 1959
  • Replacement
  • Reduction
  • Refinement
in discussing animal research
In Discussing Animal Research

“I believe that more and more people are becoming aware that to use animals thoughtlessly, without any anguish or making an effort to find another way diminishes us as human beings.”

Jane Goodall, 2001

animal welfare
Animal Welfare
  • The need
    • To have adequate food
    • Access to fresh water
  • To be
    • Pain and distress free
    • Free of anxiety and fear
    • Express normal behavior, e.g., hiding, grooming
where am i
Where Am I?
  • Responsibility to improve humankind
  • Responsibility for the environment and thus a responsibility for animals.
  • Reverence for life
slide7

Therefore, we should do all we can to eliminate or minimize pain and distress, but the use of animals in medicine is both necessary and appropriate.

the program chemical knowledge
The Program: Chemical Knowledge
  • NAS (1984) – 78% of HPV chemicals had less than minimal toxicology data
  • EDF (1997) – 71% of HPV chemicals lack minimum data
  • CMA/ACC (1997) – 20% of HPV chemicals have basic hazard data
  • EPA (1998) – less than 10% of HPV chemicals have minimum health/ecotox data
definitions
Definitions
  • HPV – high production chemicals - > 1 million lbs/year ~ 3000 chemicals
  • Minimum Tox Data – Acute, subchronic, genotox, reprotox, teratogenicity (OECD, SIDS)
the problem animal use
The Problem – Animal Use
  • HPV program
  • Endocrine disruptors
  • Pesticides
  • Children’s health
  • EU White Paper
the caat response
The CAAT Response

TestSmart

Laboratory for Molecular Toxicogenomic and Proteomics

  • Use archived materials from HPV testing – NTP
  • Utilize NTP methods for extraction of mRNA
  • Develop fundamental bioinformatics for large relational database
  • Public accessability
slide13
The extreme positions are minorities with views that are irreconcilably opposed. One cannot expect discussion when one see animal use as a holocaust and those that think animal use raises no moral issues.

Economist, 1996

animals in research
Animals in Research

The issue for the public is:

  • Accountability
  • Pain and distress
animals in research1
Animals in Research

The issues for the scientific community

  • Increase effectiveness of IACUC’s
  • Further enhance standard of care
  • Deal with the calumny
calumny
Calumny

Is the deliberate, false, malicious representation of reality. It is designed to manipulate the truth so as to injure.

calumny1
Calumny
  • Is not just lying or telling an untruth
  • It does not deny the truth, it misuses the truth and thus sounds reasonable and plausible – thus it is effective and destructive
slide19
“Calumny is the act of fundamental and comprehensive disrespect for the basic honor and dignity of all human beings”

W.S. Green - 2001

obligations in the face of calumny
Obligations in the Face of Calumny
  • Intellectual persistence: Must challenge the information and interpretations
  • Leadership: The responsibility of the scientific community
the structure of scientific revolutions role for history
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: Role for History

Each of them necessitated the community’s rejection of one time-honored scientific theory in favor of another incompatible with it. Each produced a consequent shift in the problems available for scientific scrutiny and in the standards by which the profession determined what should count as an admissible problem or as a legitimate problem-solution. And each transformed the scientific imagination in ways that we shall ultimately need to describe as a transformation of the world within which scientific work was done. Such changes, together with the controversies that almost always accompany them, are the defining characteristics of scientific revolutions.