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Forholdene under frihetsberøvelse: utlendinger og innlendinger. Katja Franko Aas Institutt for kriminologi og rettssosiologi Universitet i Oslo. Prosjekt ’Kriminalitetskontroll ved Europas grenser’ .

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forholdene under frihetsber velse utlendinger og innlendinger

Forholdene under frihetsberøvelse: utlendinger og innlendinger

Katja Franko Aas

Institutt for kriminologi og rettssosiologi

Universitet i Oslo

prosjekt kriminalitetskontroll ved europas grenser
Prosjekt ’Kriminalitetskontroll ved Europas grenser’
  • Hvilke virkninger har migrasjon for samtidens kriminalitetskontroll og strafferettsinstitusjoner?
  • Studien finansiert av Det Europeiske Forskningsrådet (European Research Council Starting Grants)
  • April 2011 - 2015

http://www.jus.uio.no/forskning/prosjekter/crimmigration/index.html

slide3

Switzerland 70,2%

      • Greece 55,5%
      • Austria 46,4%
      • Belgium 41,1%
      • Italy 36%
      • Spain 35,4%
      • Norway 32,5%
      • Sweden 28,3%
      • Germany 26,4%
      • Netherlands 26,2%
      • Denmark 21,7%
      • UK 12%
      • USA 5,9%
  • Source: World Prison Brief: http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/law/research/icps/worldbrief/
slide4
Utlendinger og innlendinger: dilemmaer
  • Betydningen av statsborgskap for straff og rettferdighet?
  • Hvem har ’retten til rettigheter’?
  • Lite forskning på feltet (EU Foreign Prisoners Project, 2006)
  • Dilemma:
    • Særbehandling (en gruppe med spesielle behov), eller
    • Likhetsprinsippet (like rettigheter / tilbud for borgere og ikke borgere)?
slide5

General outcomes EU study

Due to linguistic problems no or poor communication

• Lack of knowledge about legal rights / position / case

• Inadequate or even lack of (free) legal aid

• Less access to medical/psychiatric care

• Often exclusion from work / education and training

• Poor quality of training prison staff

• Difficult to maintain contact with family

• No/less opportunities for early/conditional release

  • In general prison authorities do (can/will) not take into consideration the special needs of foreign prisoners

• Consular assistance varies from pro-active to no interest at all

• There are a limited number of NGO’s addressing needs of foreign prisoners

slide6

‘Measures to reduce isolation and promote social resettlement’

  • Facilitate communication with other person of same nationality
  • Provide access to reading material (via consular services)
  • Prisoner likely to remain in country of detention, assist in assimilation
  • Same access to education and vocational training
  • Facilitate visits and other contacts with outside world
  • Ordinarily foreign prisoners should be eligible for prison leave
  • Prison rules and information should be made clear
  • Providetranslation and interpretation services
  • Provide language training courses
citizenship statsborgerskap
Citizenship / statsborgerskap

Citizens (statsborgere)

Non-citizens

(aliens)

’denizens’

(delborgere)

’crimmigrants’/krimmigranter

slide8

EU study - recommendations:

  • Detention of irregular migrants should never be used as a deterrent for possible future arrivals.
  • Detention of foreigners in order to secure their removal or the prevention of unauthorised entry, is only acceptable if it can be shown conclusively that these measures are necessary in order to protect essential public interests and that no other less restrictive methods of achieving these aims are likely to be effective.
  • The place and conditions of detention as well as the detention regime should reflect the basic difference that exists between the sanctions and measures of detention that are applied with the criminal justice system and the system of administrative detention.

http://www.foreignersinprison.eu/pages/page.asp?page_id=1887

ugelvik 2011 fangenes friheter
Ugelvik (2011) Fangenes friheter

Naveed: Ja, men det går bra …Politiet sier at dere utlendinger , dere må sitte i varetekt. Dere tåler det bedre enn nordmenn, he he. De norske tåler det ikke. Det stemmer det, vi som har opplevd litt harde ting, vi tåler det bedre.

Amir: [smiler]Det er derfor det er bare utlendinger her. Se deg rundt, hvor mange nordmenn ser du? To eller tre? Utlendinger må være her fordi politiet tror at vi skal stikke av. Nordmennene slipper ut.

Naveed: Men hvorfor skal vi stikke? Har bodd her i mange år, snakker språket, har jobb, har bolig. Vi skal ikke stikke.

Amir: [mer alvorlig] Vi er begge norske, mann. Han har norsk pass, jeg har norsk pass. Likevel må vi sitte her.

Naveed: … Men det går bra. Vi tåler det. Vi er sterke. En dag skal vi komme ut , og da skal vi faen lage helvete, he he.