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Data and Computer Communications. Chapter 5 – Signal Encoding Techniques . Eighth Edition by William Stallings Lecture slides by Lawrie Brown. Signal Encoding Techniques. Even the natives have difficulty mastering this peculiar vocabulary —The Golden Bough , Sir James George Frazer.

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## Data and Computer Communications

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**Data and Computer Communications**Chapter 5 – Signal Encoding Techniques Eighth Edition by William Stallings Lecture slides by Lawrie Brown**Signal Encoding Techniques**Even the natives have difficulty mastering this peculiar vocabulary —The Golden Bough, Sir James George Frazer**Digital Data, Digital Signal**• Digital signal • discrete, discontinuous voltage pulses • each pulse is a signal element • binary data encoded into signal elements**Some Terms**• unipolar • polar • data rate • duration or length of a bit • modulation rate • mark and space**Interpreting Signals**• need to know • timing of bits - when they start and end • signal levels • factors affecting signal interpretation • signal to noise ratio • data rate • bandwidth • encoding scheme**Comparison of Encoding Schemes**• signal spectrum • clocking • error detection • signal interference and noise immunity • cost and complexity**Comparison (1)**• Signal Spectrum • Lack of high frequencies reduces required bandwidth • Lack of dc component allows ac coupling via transformer, providing isolation • Concentrate power in the middle of the bandwidth • Clocking • Synchronizing transmitter and receiver • External clock • Sync mechanism based on signal**Comparison (2)**• Error detection • Can be built in to signal encoding • Signal interference and noise immunity • Some codes are better than others • Cost and complexity • Higher signal rate (& thus data rate) lead to higher costs • Some codes require signal rate greater than data rate**Nonreturn to Zero-Level(NRZ-L)**• two different voltages for 0 and 1 bits • voltage constant during bit interval • no transition I.e. no return to zero voltage • such as absence of voltage for zero, constant positive voltage for one • more often, negative voltage for one value and positive for the other**Nonreturn to Zero Inverted**• nonreturn to zero inverted on ones • constant voltage pulse for duration of bit • data encoded as presence or absence of signal transition at beginning of bit time • transition (low to high or high to low) denotes binary 1 • no transition denotes binary 0 • example of differential encoding since have • data represented by changes rather than levels • more reliable detection of transition rather than level • easy to lose sense of polarity**NRZ Pros & Cons**• Pros • easy to engineer • make good use of bandwidth • Cons • dc component • lack of synchronization capability • used for magnetic recording • not often used for signal transmission**Multilevel BinaryBipolar-AMI**• Use more than two levels • Bipolar-AMI • zero represented by no line signal • one represented by positive or negative pulse • one pulses alternate in polarity • no loss of sync if a long string of ones • long runs of zeros still a problem • no net dc component • lower bandwidth • easy error detection**Multilevel BinaryPseudoternary**• one represented by absence of line signal • zero represented by alternating positive and negative • no advantage or disadvantage over bipolar-AMI • each used in some applications**Multilevel Binary Issues**• synchronization with long runs of 0’s or 1’s • can insert additional bits, cf ISDN • scramble data (later) • not as efficient as NRZ • each signal element only represents one bit • receiver distinguishes between 3 levels: +A, -A, 0 • 3 level system could represent log23 = 1.58 bits • requires approx. 3dB more signal power for same probability of bit error**Manchester Encoding**• has transition in middle of each bit period • transition serves as clock and data • low to high represents one • high to low represents zero • used by IEEE 802.3**Differential Manchester Encoding**• midbit transition is clocking only • transition at start of bit period representing 0 • no transition at start of bit period representing 1 • this is a differential encoding scheme • used by IEEE 802.5**Biphase Pros and Cons**• Con • at least one transition per bit time and possibly two • maximum modulation rate is twice NRZ • requires more bandwidth • Pros • synchronization on mid bit transition (self clocking) • has no dc component • has error detection**Scrambling**• use scrambling to replace sequences that would produce constant voltage • these filling sequences must • produce enough transitions to sync • be recognized by receiver & replaced with original • be same length as original • design goals • have no dc component • have no long sequences of zero level line signal • have no reduction in data rate • give error detection capability**B8ZS and HDB3**if even if odd Violation within the substituted code**B8ZS: Bipolar with 8-zeros substitution**• if an octet of all zeros occurs and the last voltage pulse preceding this octet was positive, then the eight zeros of the octet are encoded as 000+-0-+ • if an octet of all zeros occurs and the last voltage pulse preceding this octet was negative, then the eight zeros of the octet are encoded as 000-+0+-**HDB3: High-density bipolar-3 zeros**1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 Check if you know why DC is still zero!**Digital Data, Analog Signal**• main use is public telephone system • has freq range of 300Hz to 3400Hz • use modem (modulator-demodulator) • encoding techniques • Amplitude shift keying (ASK) • Frequency shift keying (FSK) • Phase shift keying (PSK)**Amplitude Shift Keying**• encode 0/1 by different carrier amplitudes • usually have one amplitude zero • susceptible to sudden gain changes • inefficient • used for • up to 1200bps on voice grade lines • very high speeds over optical fiber**Binary Frequency Shift Keying**• most common is binary FSK (BFSK) • two binary values represented by two different frequencies (near carrier) • less susceptible to error than ASK • used for • up to 1200bps on voice grade lines • high frequency radio • even higher frequency on LANs using co-ax**Multiple FSK**• each signalling element represents more than one bit • more than two frequencies used • more bandwidth efficient • more prone to error**Phase Shift Keying**• phase of carrier signal is shifted to represent data • binary PSK • two phases represent two binary digits • differential PSK • phase shifted relative to previous transmission rather than some reference signal**Quadrature PSK**• get more efficient use if each signal element represents more than one bit • eg. shifts of /2 (90o) • each element represents two bits • split input data stream in two & modulate onto carrier & phase shifted carrier • can use 8 phase angles & more than one amplitude • 9600bps modem uses 12 angles, four of which have two amplitudes**QPSK and OQPSK Modulators**PSK PSK**Performance of Digital to Analog Modulation Schemes**• bandwidth • ASK/PSK bandwidth directly relates to bit rate • multilevel PSK gives significant improvements • in presence of noise: • bit error rate of PSK and QPSK are about 3dB superior to ASK and FSK • for MFSK & MPSK have tradeoff between bandwidth efficiency and error performance**Quadrature Amplitude Modulation**• QAM used on asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) and some wireless • combination of ASK and PSK • logical extension of QPSK • send two different signals simultaneously on same carrier frequency • use two copies of carrier, one shifted 90° • each carrier is ASK modulated • two independent signals over same medium • demodulate and combine for original binary output**QAM Modulator**ASK ASK**QAM Variants**• two level ASK • each of two streams in one of two states • four state system • essentially QPSK • four level ASK • combined stream in one of 16 states • have 64 and 256 state systems • improved data rate for given bandwidth • but increased potential error rate**Analog Data, Digital Signal**• digitization is conversion of analog data into digital data which can then: • be transmitted using NRZ-L • be transmitted using code other than NRZ-L • be converted to analog signal • analog to digital conversion done using a codec • pulse code modulation • delta modulation**Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)**• sampling theorem: • “If a signal is sampled at regular intervals at a rate higher than twice the highest signal frequency, the samples contain all information in original signal” • eg. 4000Hz voice data, requires 8000 sample per sec • strictly have analog samples • Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) • so assign each a digital value**Delta Modulation**• analog input is approximated by a staircase function • can move up or down one level () at each sample interval • has binary behavior • since function only moves up or down at each sample interval • hence can encode each sample as single bit • 1 for up or 0 for down**PCM verses Delta Modulation**• DM has simplicity compared to PCM • but has worse SNR • issue of bandwidth used • eg. for good voice reproduction with PCM • want 128 levels (7 bit) & voice bandwidth 4khz • need 8000 x 7 = 56kbps • data compression can improve on this • still growing demand for digital signals • use of repeaters, TDM, efficient switching • PCM preferred to DM for analog signals**Analog Data, Analog Signals**• modulate carrier frequency with analog data • why modulate analog signals? • higher frequency can give more efficient transmission • permits frequency division multiplexing (chapter 8) • types of modulation • Amplitude • Frequency • Phase

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