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An SiPM Based Readout for the sPHENIX Calorimeters. Eric J. Mannel IEEE NSS/MIC October 30, 2013. sPHENIX Upgrade to PHENIX. PHENIX designed in the early 90’s Currently set to begin 14 th year of data collection Significant upgrades over the years ((F)VTX, RPCs…)

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an sipm based readout for the sphenix calorimeters

An SiPM Based Readout for the sPHENIX Calorimeters

Eric J. Mannel

IEEE NSS/MIC

October 30, 2013

sphenix upgrade to phenix
sPHENIX Upgrade to PHENIX
  • PHENIX designed in the early 90’s
  • Currently set to begin 14th year of data collection
  • Significant upgrades over the years ((F)VTX, RPCs…)
  • sPHENIX is the next logical upgrade step
    • Completely replaces the current spectrometer
    • New and exciting Jet physics
  • Future upgrades:
    • fsPHENIX (forward sPHENIX)
    • ePHENIX (eRHIC detector)

PHENIX

ePHENIX

E.J. Mannel, BNL

sphenix detector concept
sPHENIX Detector Concept
  • Based on BaBar solenoid magnet
  • Compact electromagnetic and hadroniccalorimetery
      • See talk by C. Woody (N16-5) for more details
  • Common electronics for calorimetry:
  • Central tracking: Silicon, TPC…
  • Designed to focus on heavy-ion jet physics.
    • Total energy: Hadron + E.M.
    • Good solid angle: |h|< 1, Df=2p

E.J. Mannel, BNL

calorimeter electronics
Calorimeter Electronics
  • Optical sensor must be:
    • Small, compact device
    • Work in high magnetic fields ( ~1.5T)
    • Sufficient dynamic range for EMCal and Hcal, ~103
  • MultiPixel Photon Counter (MPPC or SiPM)
    • Hamamatsu S10362-33-25C
    • Immune to magnetic fields
    • Small: 3mm x 3mm
    • Dynamic range: ~104(14400 Pixels)
    • Inexpensive ( < $15 per device)
    • Temperature dependent gain

10%/0C (Next slide)

  • Keeping options open for newer devices

E.J. Mannel, BNL

sipm temperature dependence
SiPMTemperature Dependence
  • Reverse breakdown voltage: VBD ~ 70V
  • Overvoltage range:

VOV ~ 2V

  • VBD increases linearly with temperature: 56mV/0C
  • Gain increase: x2/Volt

Minamino, Akihiro at al.

"T2K experiment: Neutrino Detectors

E.J. Mannel, BNL

temperature compensation
Temperature Compensation
  • Temperature compensation using closed feedback loop
    • Thermistor
    • Logic control
    • 10 bit ADC
    • 12 bit DAC
  • DAC reduces VBD providing full range of gain control

E.J. Mannel, BNL

sipm pre amp shaper driver
SiPM Pre-Amp/Shaper/Driver
  • Single tower max energy: 40GeV
  • Dynamic range: 1000
  • 1 MIP = 142 MeV
  • MIP Peak ~35 pe
  • 40GeV ~104pe
  • Circuit designed and

tested at BNL (right)

E.J. Mannel, BNL

comparison with spice simulation
Comparison with SPICE Simulation
  • Avoid saturation region of SiPM, < 10K pixels.
  • Full SPICE simulation of circuit.
  • Compare to measured performance of circuit using comparable LED input.

E.J. Mannel, BNL

sipm readout
SiPM Readout
  • Direct digitization of signals
    • Signals shaped to match sampling time
    • FADCs digitize the signals
  • Amplifier/Shaper/Driver mounted “on detector”, digitization done “near detector”
  • Digital pipeline stores data until a LVL1 trigger is received.
  • Digital signals can be processed in real time (gain correction, pedestal subtraction) to generate trigger primitives
  • Based on PHENIX HBD/RPC electronics

E.J. Mannel, BNL

sipm readout1
SiPMReadout

Trigger

GL1

MTM

L1

Busy

RHIC

Clock

TriggerPrimitives

Clock/Trigger/Mode Bits

GTM

Detector

PART-3

DCM-2

JSEB-2

Analog FrontEnd

Digital Front End

48/64/128

ATP

DCM-2

EvB

HPSS

CountingHouse

IR

E.J. Mannel, BNL

sphenix test beam operations
sPHENIX Test Beam Operations
  • Test beam scheduled for 2014 (FNAL T-1044)
    • Prototype EMCal and HCal detectors.
    • Prototype SiPMbased readout system
  • Proto-type calorimeters (See talk by C. Woody, N16-5)
    • Hcal: Steel-Scintillator
      • 2 segments (front/back)
      • 16 Towers, 32 channels
    • EMCal:Tunsten-Scintillating fiber
      • Projective geometry
      • 49 towers (7 x 7 array)
    • SiPM Readout for both detectors with modified layout
  • PHENIX HBD Electronics for readout

E.J. Mannel, BNL

hcal test beam readout
HCal Test Beam Readout
  • SiPM with thermistor attached to fiber
  • 2-16 channel interface board contains amplifier/shaper driver boards
  • 32 channel controller board providing temperature compensation
  • HBD electronics digitizes SiPM signals:
    • 60MHz sampling
    • 10 samples per signal
    • External triggering
  • Local PC provides slow control

E.J. Mannel, BNL

emcal test beam readout
EMCal Test Beam Readout
  • 8 x 8 array of electronics (7 x 7 array of towers).
  • Amplifier/Shaper/Driver on plug-in board.
  • Identical controller circuitry as Hcal electronics
  • Interfaces to HDB electronics

E.J. Mannel, BNL

conclusions
Conclusions
  • sPHENIX MIE has been submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy.
  • Prototype circuits for SiPM based readout have been developed and tested successfully.
  • A test beam experiment at FNAL (T-1044) is scheduled for February 2014.
    • Prototype EMCal and HCal detectors
    • Prototype SiPM based readout with continuous digitization of SiPM signals.
  • sPHENIX data taking proposed to start FY2019
  • sPHENIX is part of a staged upgrade to ePHENIX and eRHIC physics.

E.J. Mannel, BNL

phenix in 202
PHENIX In 202?

h=+1

R (cm)

R (cm)

HCal

h=-1

HCal

EMCal

AreoGel

-1.2

EMCal & Preshower

RICH

TPC

h=4

EMCal

p/A

e-

DIRC

GEM

Station2

z (cm)

GEMs

GEMs

Station1

GEM

Station3

GEM

Station4

E.J. Mannel, BNL