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读大意、读结构、读语气、 读态度、读言外之意 —— 谈阅读理解的五类难题 PowerPoint Presentation
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读大意、读结构、读语气、 读态度、读言外之意 —— 谈阅读理解的五类难题

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读大意、读结构、读语气、 读态度、读言外之意 —— 谈阅读理解的五类难题 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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读大意、读结构、读语气、 读态度、读言外之意 —— 谈阅读理解的五类难题. Read for Gist, Structure, Tone, Voice and Implication. Read for Gist. Where is the gist ? (主旨 要义在哪里?) 1 ) 文章第一 句或 段落; 2 )每一段的主题句; 3 ) 文章的字里行间 。 这类试题考查考生略读文章、领会大意的能力,对考生的归纳、概括能力有一定要求。. Example: Ancient Pharaoh. Read for Structure.

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读大意、读结构、读语气、读态度、读言外之意——谈阅读理解的五类难题读大意、读结构、读语气、读态度、读言外之意——谈阅读理解的五类难题

ReadforGist,Structure,Tone,VoiceandImplication

read for gist
ReadforGist

Whereisthegist ?(主旨要义在哪里?)

1)文章第一句或段落;

2)每一段的主题句;

3)文章的字里行间。

这类试题考查考生略读文章、领会大意的能力,对考生的归纳、概括能力有一定要求。

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Example:

Ancient Pharaoh

read for structure
Read for Structure

Recognizethestructureofatext?(理解文章的基本结构)

关于结构:

1)段落与篇章的启、承、转、合;

2)句与句、段与段之间的逻辑关系(如文中某一段落的作用或某些词语之间的指代关系等)。

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段落的启承转合

Man is closely related to the environment.(启) Our environment provides man with fresh air to breathe, clean water to drink, various vegetables to eat and fertile soil in which to plant.(承) Man could hardly survive if he couldn’t get the necessities he needed from the environment.(承) Even when he sleeps, he needs quiet surroundings.(承)So a good environment is essential to man’s life.(合)

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语篇的启承转合

引言段(启和承)

Man is closely related to the environment. Our environment provides man with fresh air to breathe, clean water to drink, various vegetables to eat and fertile soil in which to plant. Man could hardly survive if he couldn’t get the necessities he needed from the environment. Even when he sleeps, he needs quiet surroundings. So a good environment is essential to man’s life.

推展段(转)

However, our environment is faced with many dangers. It is seriously polluted by chemical wastes from factories and sewage in the city. Farmland is also overworked and has lost its fertility. Some even have become sandy. Moreover, trees are being cut down, thus a large scale of forests species of plants and animals are disappearing from the earth. The balance of nature is being destroyed.

结论段(合)

Effective measures must be taken to protect our environment. Laws must be passed to prohibit factories from emitting wasted gases and releasing water before they are purified. Moreover, people should be forbidden to throw away rubbish whenever and wherever they like. And rare animals must be well preserved. Finally, new models of vehicles should be invented, which give off fewer exhausted fumes and less noise than the old ones. Only in this way can man have a pleasant environment to live in.

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段与段之间的逻辑关系

In ancient Egypt, the pharaoh(法老) treated the poor message runner like a prince when he arrived at the palace, if he brought good news. However, if the exhausted runner had the misfortune to bring the pharaoh unhappy news, his head was cut off.

Shades of that spirit spread over today’s conversations. Once a friend and I packed up some peanut butter and sandwiches for an outing. As we walked light-heartedly out the door, picnic basket in hand, a smiling neighbor looked up at the sky and said, “Oh boy, bad day for a picnic. The weatherman says it’s going to rain.” I wanted to strike him on the face with the peanut butter and sandwiches. Not for his stupid weather report, for his smile.

Several months ago I was racing to catch a bus. As I breathlessly put my handful of cash across the Greyhound counter, the sales agent said with a broad smile, “Oh that bus left five minutes ago.” Dreams of head-cutting!

It’s not the news that makes someone angry. It’s the unsympathetic attitude with which it’s delivered. Everyone must give bad news from time to time, and winning professionals do it with the proper attitude. A doctor advising a patient that she needs an operation does it in a caring way. A boss informing an employee he didn’t get the job takes on a sympathetic tone. Big winners know, when delivering any bad news, they should share the feeling of the receiver.

Unfortunately, many people are not aware of this. When you’re tired from a long flight, has a hotel clerk cheerfully said that your room isn’t ready yet? When you had your heart set on the toast beef, has your waiter merrily told you that he just served the last piece? It makes you as traveler or diner want to land your fist right on their unsympathetic faces.

Had my neighbor told me of the upcoming rainstorm with sympathy, I would have appreciated his warning. Had the Greyhound salesclerk sympathetically informed me that my bus had already left, I probably would have said, “Oh, that’s all right. I’ll catch the next one.” Big winners, when they bear bad news, deliver bombs with the emotion the bombarded (被轰炸的) person is sure to have. 

53. In Paragraph 1, the writer tells the story of the pharaoh to ________.

A. make a comparison B. introduce a topic

C. describe a scene D. offer an argument

read for tone and voice
Read for Tone and Voice

1)作者的语气和态度;

2)人物的语气和态度;

Howtofindtheirtoneandvoice?(语气与态度在哪儿?

1)关注形容词、副词、动词和名词;

2)关注语气(voice)、转折(transition)、比较(comparison)、对比(contrast)和修辞手段,如夸张(hyperbole)、排比(parallelism)、重复(repetition)、比喻(metaphor)、仿拟(parody)、互文(intertext)等。

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Four people in England, back in 1953, stared at Photo 51. It wasn’t much—a picture showing a black X. But three of these people won the Nobel prize for figuring out what the photo really showed—the shape of DNA. The discovery brought fame and fortune to scientists James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins. The fourth, the one who actually made the picture, was left out.

  • Her name was Rosalind Franklin. “She shouldhavebeen up there,” says historian Mary Bowden. “If her photo hadn’t been there, the others couldn’t have come up with the structure.” One reason Franklin was missing was that she had died of cancer four years before the Nobel decision. But now scholars doubt that Franklin was not only robbed of her life by disease but robbed of credit by her competitors.
  • At Cambridge University in the 1950s, Watson and Crick tried to make models by cutting up shapes of DNA’s parts and then putting them together. In the meantime, at King’s College in London, Franklin and Wilkins shone X-rays at the molecule(分子). The rays produced patterns reflecting the shape.
  • But Wilkins and Franklin’s relationship was a lot rockier than the celebrated teamwork of Watson and Crick. Wilkins thought Franklin was hired to be his assistant. But the college actually employed her to take over the DNA project.
  • What she did was produce X-ray pictures that told Watson and Crick that one of their early models was inside out. And she was not shy about saying so. That angered Watson, who attacked her in return, “Mere inspection suggested that she would not easily bend. Clearly she had to go or be put in her place.”
  • As Franklin’s competitors, Wilkins, Watson and Crick had much to gain by cutting her out of the little group of researchers, says historian Pnina Abir-Am. In 1962 at the Nobel prize awarding ceremony, Wilkins thanked 13 colleagues by name before he mentioned Franklin. Watson wrote his book laughing at her. Crick wrote in 1974 that “Franklins was only two steps away from the solution.”
  • No, Franklin was the solution. “She contributed more than any other player to solving the structure of DNA. She must be considered a co-discoverer,” Abir-Am says. This was backed up by Aaron Klug, who worked with Franklin and later won a Nobel Prize himself. Once described as the “Dark Lady of DNA”, Franklin is finally coming into the light.
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60. What is the writer’s attitude toward Wilkins, Watson and Crick?

  • Disapproving. B. Respectful.

C. Admiring D. Doubtful

read for implication
Read for Implication

Howtoinfer?(如何作出判断和推理?)

1)Inferthemeaningofanunknownwordorphrase;

2)Inferthepossibilityofsomething;

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Example:

E-nose

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设置干扰项的几个原则
  • 取自文本、貌似正确;
  • 长短一致、形式相似;
  • 干净利落、避免提示;
  • 短小精干、简明扼要。