读大意、读结构、读语气、 读态度、读言外之意 —— 谈阅读理解的五类难题. Read for Gist, Structure, Tone, Voice and Implication. Read for Gist. Where is the gist ？ （主旨 要义在哪里？） 1 ） 文章第一 句或 段落； 2 ）每一段的主题句； 3 ） 文章的字里行间 。 这类试题考查考生略读文章、领会大意的能力，对考生的归纳、概括能力有一定要求。. Example: Ancient Pharaoh. Read for Structure.
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Man is closely related to the environment.（启） Our environment provides man with fresh air to breathe, clean water to drink, various vegetables to eat and fertile soil in which to plant.（承） Man could hardly survive if he couldn’t get the necessities he needed from the environment.（承） Even when he sleeps, he needs quiet surroundings.（承）So a good environment is essential to man’s life.（合）
Man is closely related to the environment. Our environment provides man with fresh air to breathe, clean water to drink, various vegetables to eat and fertile soil in which to plant. Man could hardly survive if he couldn’t get the necessities he needed from the environment. Even when he sleeps, he needs quiet surroundings. So a good environment is essential to man’s life.
However, our environment is faced with many dangers. It is seriously polluted by chemical wastes from factories and sewage in the city. Farmland is also overworked and has lost its fertility. Some even have become sandy. Moreover, trees are being cut down, thus a large scale of forests species of plants and animals are disappearing from the earth. The balance of nature is being destroyed.
Effective measures must be taken to protect our environment. Laws must be passed to prohibit factories from emitting wasted gases and releasing water before they are purified. Moreover, people should be forbidden to throw away rubbish whenever and wherever they like. And rare animals must be well preserved. Finally, new models of vehicles should be invented, which give off fewer exhausted fumes and less noise than the old ones. Only in this way can man have a pleasant environment to live in.
In ancient Egypt, the pharaoh(法老) treated the poor message runner like a prince when he arrived at the palace, if he brought good news. However, if the exhausted runner had the misfortune to bring the pharaoh unhappy news, his head was cut off.
Shades of that spirit spread over today’s conversations. Once a friend and I packed up some peanut butter and sandwiches for an outing. As we walked light-heartedly out the door, picnic basket in hand, a smiling neighbor looked up at the sky and said, “Oh boy, bad day for a picnic. The weatherman says it’s going to rain.” I wanted to strike him on the face with the peanut butter and sandwiches. Not for his stupid weather report, for his smile.
Several months ago I was racing to catch a bus. As I breathlessly put my handful of cash across the Greyhound counter, the sales agent said with a broad smile, “Oh that bus left five minutes ago.” Dreams of head-cutting!
It’s not the news that makes someone angry. It’s the unsympathetic attitude with which it’s delivered. Everyone must give bad news from time to time, and winning professionals do it with the proper attitude. A doctor advising a patient that she needs an operation does it in a caring way. A boss informing an employee he didn’t get the job takes on a sympathetic tone. Big winners know, when delivering any bad news, they should share the feeling of the receiver.
Unfortunately, many people are not aware of this. When you’re tired from a long flight, has a hotel clerk cheerfully said that your room isn’t ready yet? When you had your heart set on the toast beef, has your waiter merrily told you that he just served the last piece? It makes you as traveler or diner want to land your fist right on their unsympathetic faces.
Had my neighbor told me of the upcoming rainstorm with sympathy, I would have appreciated his warning. Had the Greyhound salesclerk sympathetically informed me that my bus had already left, I probably would have said, “Oh, that’s all right. I’ll catch the next one.” Big winners, when they bear bad news, deliver bombs with the emotion the bombarded (被轰炸的) person is sure to have.
53. In Paragraph 1, the writer tells the story of the pharaoh to ________.
A. make a comparison B. introduce a topic
C. describe a scene D. offer an argument
Four people in England, back in 1953, stared at Photo 51. It wasn’t much—a picture showing a black X. But three of these people won the Nobel prize for figuring out what the photo really showed—the shape of DNA. The discovery brought fame and fortune to scientists James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins. The fourth, the one who actually made the picture, was left out.
C. Admiring D. Doubtful