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Chapter 1. Science Skills Page 2. What is science? (3:54). 1.1 . Science From Curiosity. Science - system of knowledge & methods used to find it Begins w/ curiosity…ends w/ discovery Curiosity provides ?’s Observing/measuring…means to find answers. Science and Technology.

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chapter 1

Chapter 1

Science Skills

Page 2

slide2

What is science? (3:54)

1.1

Science From Curiosity

  • Science - system of knowledge & methods used to find it
  • Begins w/ curiosity…ends w/ discovery
  • Curiosity provides ?’s
  • Observing/measuring…means to find answers
science and technology
Science and Technology

Science and Technology (1:39)

  • Science / technology interdependent
    • Advances in 1 leads to advances in the other
big ideas of physical science
Big Ideas of Physical Science
  • Space and Time
    • universe age
    • size
  • Matter and Change
    • Small amt for universe
    • Volume/mass
    • Atoms
      • Protons, neutrons, electrons
  • Forces and Motion
    • Push/pull causes change
    • Laws will explain
  • Energy
    • Many forms
    • Drives motion
    • Transferred/never destroyed
sec 1 2 using a scientific approach p 7
Sec 1.2 Using a Scientific Approachp. 7
  • Scientific Method - organized plan for gathering, organizing, & communicating info
    • Goal….to solve problem or better understand observed event
a scientific method
A Scientific Method
  • Making Observations
    • Observation – info that you obtain through your senses
    • Inference – conclusions drawn based on observations
  • Develop ? / problem
  • Form Hypothesis
    • proposed answer to ?
    • testable
slide9
Testing a hypothesis
    • Manipulated (independent) variable – changed by you to test hyp.
    • Responding (dependent) variable – changes in response to man. var.
    • Controlled variable – factors kept constant to test hyp.
    • Control Group –setup run w/o man.var.
slide10
Draw Conclusions – does data support hyp?
  • Develop Theory
    • Scientific Theory – well-tested explanation for observations or experimental results
      • Tells “why”
      • Theories are never “proved”
      • Theories may be revised or replaced

Scientific Method Rap

scientific laws
Scientific Laws
  • Scientific law – statement summarizing pattern found in nature
      • explains “what”
      • DOES NOT attempt to explain observed pattern in nature
scientific models
Scientific Models
  • Scientific Models - makes easier to understand things too hard to observe directly
    • Ex. Atomic models, models of the solar system, cell models, etc.

The Scientific Method (12:07)

sec 1 3 measurement p 14
Sec 1.3 Measurementp. 14
  • Scientific Notation – makes very large / very small #’s easer to work w/
    • expressing value as # from 1-10 x power of 10
      • Ex. 300,000,000,000 = 3x1011
      • .00000006 = 6x10-8
si units of measurement metric
SI Units of Measurement (Metric)
  • Length – straight line dist. btwn 2 pts.
    • meters (m)
  • Mass – amt. of matter in object
    • grams (g)
  • Volume – amt. of space occupied by object
    • liters (L)
measuring temperature
Measuring Temperature
  • 3 temp scales:
    • Fahrenheit
      • H2O freezes @ 32°F
      • boils @ 212°F
    • Celsius
      • H2O freezes @ 0°C
      • Boils @ 100°C
    • Kelvin (SI base unit for temp)
      • 0 K – lowest possible temp (= -273.15°C)
      • K = °C + 273
significant figures
Significant Figures
  • Sig Figs are digits in a # that contribute to its precision.
  • A calculation can only be as precise as it’s LEAST precise measurement.
sig fig rules
Sig Fig Rules
  • ALL non-zero #’s are always significant.
  • Any zero btwn two sig figs is significant.
  • Trailing zeros are only significant in the decimal portion.
    • 13.450 (this zero is a sig fig)
    • 1400 (these zeros are NOT sig figs)
how many sig figs
How many sig figs?
  • 50.5
  • 26.25
  • 10,100
  • 500
  • 650
  • .050
  • 1.0250
limits of measurement
Limits of Measurement
  • Precision – gauge of how exact a measurement is
  • Accuracy – closeness of a measurement to the actual value
1 4 presenting scientific data p 22
1.4 Presenting Scientific Data p. 22
  • Scientists organize data using data tables and graphs.
data tables
Data Tables
  • Relate the manipulated and responding variables
line graphs
Line Graphs
  • Show changes in related variables
  • Manipulated (Independent) variable is plotted on the x-axis.
  • Responding (Dependent) variable is plotted on the y-axis.
bar graphs
Bar Graphs
  • Often used to compare a set of measurements, amounts, or changes.
circle graphs
Circle Graphs
  • Show how part relates to the whole
  • Entire circle represents 100%, and slices represent percentages that make up the 100%