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Berkeley County Reading and Writing Institutes. Media literacy 101. Frank Baker media educator [email protected] Media Literacy Clearinghouse Media literacy 101.

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Berkeley County Reading and Writing Institutes

Media literacy 101

Frank Baker

media educator

[email protected]

Media Literacy Clearinghouse

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Media literacy 101

“It would be a breach of our duties as teachers for us to ignore the rhetorical power of visual forms of media in combination with text and sound…the critical media literacy we need to teach must include evaluation of these media, lest our students fail to see, understand, and learn to harness the persuasive power of visual media.”NCTE Resolution on Visual/Media Literacy

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Media literacy 101

“Our students are growing up in a world saturated with media messages…yet, they (and their teachers) receive little or no training in the skills of analyzing or re-evaluating these messages, many of which make use of language, moving images, music, sound effects.”Source: R.Hobbs, Journal Adult & Adolescent Literacy, February 2004

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Media literacy 101

  • American Association of School Libraries

  • International Reading Association

  • Natl Board of Professional Teaching Standards

  • National Council for Teachers of English

  • National Middle Schools Association

  • Partnership for 21st Century Skills

  • White House Office of National Drug Control Policy

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Media literacy 101

What is media literacy?


Why should your students become media literate?

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Media literacy 101

Media literacy is concerned with helping students develop an informed and critical understanding of the nature of mass media, the techniques used by them, and the impact of these techniques. More specifically, it is education that aims to increase the students' understanding and enjoyment of how the media work, how they produce meaning, how they are organized, and how they construct reality. Media literacy also aims to provide students with the ability to create media products. (Source: Media Literacy Resource Guide, Ministry of Education Ontario, 1997)

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Media literacy 101

"If video is how we are communicating and persuading in this new century, why aren't more students writing screenplays as part of their schoolwork?“Heidi Hayes Jacob

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Core Concepts

  • All media are constructed

  • Media are constructed using unique languages with their own set of rules

  • Media convey values and points of view

  • Audiences negotiate meaning

  • Media = Power + Profit

    Source: Center for Media Literacy

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What is this?

No, this is a PHOTOGRAPH of a horse.

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Media are constructed using unique languages with their own set of rules

Language of filmCameraLightsSound/MusicSetsEditing

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Media = Power + Profit set of rules

Big 5 MediaFOX (News Corp) NBC (GE) CBS (Viacom) ABC (Disney)CNN (AOL/Time Warner)

What are the implications/ramifications if only 5 companies control magazines, newspapers, TV, radio, newspapers, Internet, film, etc.?

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Advertiser~Audience set of rules

This program

is brought to

you by the


You arebrought tothe sponsorby the program.

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Critical thinking questions set of rules

  • Who produces/pays for media?

  • For what purpose(s) was it made?

  • For which ‘target audience(s)’?

  • What techniques does the messenger

    use to attract attention?

  • Who or what is omitted and why?

  • How do we know what it means?

  • Does it contain bias or stereotypes?

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Techniques set of rules

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Techniques set of rules

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Techniques set of rules

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Techniques set of rules

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Techniques set of rules

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Techniques set of rules

The box of Oreos was not in the original NBC “Friends:”it was placed there virtually for DVD/syndication exposure

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Techniques set of rules

well known case

of the digital

creation of a magazine cover

featuring a woman who does

not exist

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Body Image set of rules

The subjective concept of one's physical appearance based on self-observation and reactions of others. (American Heritage)

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Body Image- Studies set of rules

Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston found that the more adolescent and pre-adolescent girls read fashion magazines, the more likely they were to diet and to feel unhappy about their bodies. (USA Today 1/18/2006)

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Body Image- Statistics set of rules

69% of teens read a magazine in a typical day

Real Teens: A Contemporary Snapshot of Youth Culture ( by George Barna )

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Body Image- Statistics set of rules

  • 42% of 1st-3rd grade girls want to be thinner

  • 45% of boys and girls in grades 3-6 want to be thinner

  • 37% have already dieted

  • 6.9% score in the Eating Disorder range

  • 51% of 9-10 year old girls feel better about selves when dieting

  • 9% of 9 year old have vomited to lose weight

  • 81% of 10 year olds are afraid of being fat

  • 53% of 13 year old girls are unhappy with their bodies

  • 78% of 18 year old girls are unhappy with their bodies

  • The #1 wish of girls 11-17 years old is to lose weight

    source: Body Wars: Making Peace with Women's Bodies by Margo Maine, Ph.D.

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Body Image- Studies set of rules

"....unrealistically thin young women are often used in advertisements for everything from soft drinks to cars..... previous research has already shown that such advertising contributes to negative body images among young girls and women." (UK News story, Aug. 31, 2005)

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Body Image- Studies set of rules

Males impacted: "Action figures present subtle messages of unrealistic role models of well-sculpted, heavily muscled, 'perfect' bodies that little boys see as their role models.“Sondra Kronberg, director and co-founder of Eating Disorder Associates Treatment & Referral Centers

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Body Image- Studies set of rules

According to statistics posted by the National Institute on Media and the Family, by age 13,  some 53 percent of American girls are unhappy with their bodies; that figure grows to 78 percent by the time girls reach 17. In another study on fifth graders, 10-year-old girls and boys told researchers they were dissatisfied with their own bodies after watching a music video by Britney Spears or a clip from the TV show Friends. And adolescent girls who viewed commercials depicting unrealistically thin models felt "less confident, more angry, and more dissatisfied with their weight and appearance."

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Body Image: set of rulesAre things changing?

New Dove Ad Campaign

Just My Size Ad

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Body Image-Resources set of rules

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Other Resources set of rules

CDC produced curriculum

Media Sharp:Analyzing Alcohol &Tobacco Messages