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Physiology and Ecology Review. Nervous Syste m. Q1: Which of the following offers the best description of neural transmission across a mammalian synaptic gap?. Neural impulses involve the flow of K+ and Na+ across the gap. Neural impulses travel across the gap as electrical currents.

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slide4
Q1: Which of the following offers the best description of neural transmission across a mammalian synaptic gap?
  • Neural impulses involve the flow of K+ and Na+ across the gap.
  • Neural impulses travel across the gap as electrical currents.
  • Neural impulses cause the release of chemicals that diffuse across the gap.
  • Neural impulses travel across the gap in both directions.
  • The calcium within the axons and dendrites of nerves adjacent to a synapse acts as the neurotransmitter.
slide5
Which of the following offers the best description of neural transmission across a mammalian synaptic gap?
  • Neural impulses involve the flow of K+ and Na+ across the gap.
  • Neural impulses travel across the gap as electrical currents.
  • Neural impulses cause the release of chemicals that diffuse across the gap.
  • Neural impulses travel across the gap in both directions.
  • The calcium within the axons and dendrites of nerves adjacent to a synapse acts as the neurotransmitter.
slide6
Q2: Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in an action potential after stimulation of a neuron?

A K+ moves in; Na+ moves out

B Na+ moves in; K+ moves out

C Na+ moves in; Ca++ moves out

D Na+ moves in; Cl- moves out

E K+ moves in; organic anions move out

slide7
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in an action potential after stimulation of a neuron?

A K+ moves in; Na+ moves out

B Na+ moves in; K+ moves out

C Na+ moves in; Ca++ moves out

D Na+ moves in; Cl- moves out

E K+ moves in; organic anions move out

slide8

Q3: All of the following statements about neurotransmitters are generally true EXCEPT:A They may cause depolarization or hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membraneB They are actively transported across the synaptic cleftC They are released from membrane-bound packets called vesiclesD They may be enzymatically degraded at the postsynaptic membraneE They bind to specific receptors on the postsynaptic membrane.

slide9

All of the following statements about neurotransmitters are generally true EXCEPT:A They may cause depolarization or hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membraneB They are actively transported across the synaptic cleftC They are released from membrane-bound packets called vesiclesD They may be enzymatically degraded at the postsynaptic membraneE They bind to specific receptors on the postsynaptic membrane.

features of exchange surfaces
Features of Exchange Surfaces?
  • Large surface area, often folded
  • Thin barrier to reduce diffusion distance
  • Fresh supply of required molecules on one side to keep concentration high

-Removal of required molecules on other side to keep concentration low

-(maintains concentration gradient)

slide12

Gill capillaries

Lung and skin capillaries

Lung capillaries

Lung capillaries

AMPHIBIANS

REPTILES (EXCEPT BIRDS)

MAMMALS AND BIRDS

FISHES

Right systemicaorta

Pulmonarycircuit

Artery

Pulmocutaneouscircuit

Pulmonarycircuit

Gillcirculation

Heart:ventricle (V)

Left

Systemicaorta

A

A

A

A

A

A

Atrium (A)

V

V

V

V

V

Left

Right

Left

Left

Right

Right

Systemiccirculation

Systemic circuit

Systemic circuit

Vein

Systemic capillaries

Systemic capillaries

Systemic capillaries

Systemic capillaries

Figure 42.4

Vertebrate circulatory systems

slide13
Q4:The function of which of the following structures is NOT directly related to diffusion or active transport across its membrane?
  • Aorta
  • Small intestine
  • Nephron tubule
  • Capillary
  • Alveolus
slide14

The function of which of the following structures is NOT directly related to diffusion or active transport across its membrane?A AortaB Small intestineC Nepheron tubuleD Capillary E Alveolus

slide15

Q5: In mammals, a decrease in body temperature results in which of the following responses?A Release of thyroxine decreases the rate of metabolismB Blood vessels close to the surface of the skin constrictC Increased secretion of epinephrine restricts the amount of sugar released into the circulatory systemD The adrenal glands increase the release of acetylcholine into the circulatory systemE Blood vessels in deep muscles constrict so that heat is conserved

slide16

In mammals, a decrease in body temperature results in which of the following responses?A Release of thyroxine decreases the rate of metabolismB Blood vessels close to the surface of the skin constrictC Increased secretion of epinephrine restricts the amount of sugar released into the circulatory systemD The adrenal glands increase the release of acetylcholine into the circulatory systemE Blood vessels in deep muscles constrict so that heat is conserved

maintaining homeostasis
Maintaining homeostasis

high

low

hormone 1

lowersbody condition

gland

specific body condition

raisesbody condition

gland

Negative FeedbackModel

hormone 2

positive feedback
Positive Feedback
  • AMPLIFICATION
positive feedback in plants
Positive Feedback in Plants
  • Ripening Fruit—hormone ethylene
  • One of the coolest things about ethylene is that it is released in a positive feedback loop: a little bit of ethylene causes more to be released, which causes even more to be released, and so on.
  • A benefit of this fact is that you can take an unripe fruit (a pear, plum, or peach, for example) and put it in a paper bag with riper fruit (bananas work well for this) and ethylene will accumulate, making the unripe fruit soft and sweet.
slide25

Q6: Which of the following hormones is directly responsible for positive feedback loop during labor?A MelatoninB OxytocinC ProgesteroneD ProlactinE FSH

slide26

Which of the following hormones is directly responsible for the maintenance of the uterine lining during pregnancy in mammals?A MelatoninB OxytocinC ProgesteroneD ProlactinE FSH

level population 4 4 3 360 2 780 1 5 782
Level Population4 43 3602 7801 5,782

A. Primary consumers

B. Secondary consumer

C. Tertiary consumers

D. Decomposers

E. Producers

Question 7: In a simple ecosystem, a census of the populations in four successive trophic levels was taken as shown above. If level 1 is composed of photosynthetic autotrophs, then the trophic level with 780 individuals will most likely represent:

level population 4 4 3 360 2 780 1 5 7821
Level Population4 43 3602 7801 5,782

A. Primary consumers

B. Secondary consumer

C. Tertiary consumers

D. Decomposers

E. Producers

In a simple ecosystem, a census of the populations in four successive trophic levels was taken as shown above. If level 1 is composed of photosynthetic autotrophs, then the trophic level with 780 individuals will most likely represent:

question 8 in the process of succession which of the following is true of k selected plant species
Question 8: In the process of succession, which of the following is true of K-selected plant species?

A. They keep their carrying capacity at a minimum level.

B. They usually reproduce early in life.

C. They are usually found in climax stages of succession.

D. There are the dominant species in early stages of succession.

E. They have a short lifespan.

in the process of succession which of the following is true of k selected plant species
In the process of succession, which of the following is true of K-selected plant species?

A. They keep their carrying capacity at a minimum level.

B. They usually reproduce early in life.

C. They are usually found in climax stages of succession.

D. The are the dominant species in early stages of succession.

E. They have a short lifespan.

fixed action patterns
Fixed Action Patterns

A fixed action pattern (FAP)

Is a sequence of unlearned, innate behaviors that is unchangeable

Once initiated, is usually carried to completion

A FAP is triggered by an external sensory stimulus

Known as a sign stimulus

(a) A male three-spined stickleback fish shows its red underside.

Figure 51.3a

slide37
When presented with unrealistic models

As long as some red is present, the attack behavior occurs

(b) The realistic model at the top, without a red underside, produces no aggressive response in a male three-spined stickleback fish. Theother models, with red undersides, produce strong responses.

Figure 51.3b

imprinting
Imprinting

Imprinting is a type of behavior

That includes both learning and innate components and is generally irreversible

  • Imprinting is distinguished from other types of learning by a sensitive period
    • A limited phase in an animal’s development that is the only time when certain behaviors can be learned
  • An example of imprinting is young geese
    • Following their mother
slide39
Operant conditioning is a form of psychologicallearning where an individual modifies the occurrence and form of its own behavior due to the association of the behavior with a stimulus.
  • Operant conditioning is distinguished from classical conditioning (also called respondent conditioning) in that operant conditioning deals with the modification of "voluntary behavior" or operant behavior
slide40

Question 9: If young male zebra finches are raised by foster parents of another species, the Bengalese finch, they will court female Bengalese finch instead of females of their own species. This behavior results from which of the following?

A. Imprinting

B. Habituation

C. Conditioning

D. Reinforcement

E. Pheromones

slide41

Question 9: If young male zebra finches are raised by foster parents of another species, the Bengalese finch, they will court female Bengalese finch instead of females of their own species. This behavior results from which of the following?

A. Imprinting

B. Habituation

C. Conditioning

D. Reinforcement

E. Pheromones

slide42
Question 10: All of the following statements concerning characteristics of predator-prey relationships are correct EXCEPT:

A. A rise in the population of prey is often followed by a rise in the population of predators.

B. A rise in the population of predators is followed by a decrease in the population of prey.

C. Camouflage is an adaptation that protects prey.

D. The production of large number of offspring within very short periods of time ensures the survival of some prey populations

E. The population of predators most often eliminates the population of prey.

slide43
All of the following statements concerning characteristics of predator-prey relationships are correct EXCEPT:

A. A rise in the population of prey is often followed by a rise in the population of predators.

B. A rise in the population of predators is followed by a decrease in the population of prey.

C. Camouflage is an adaptation that protects prey.

D. The production of large number of offspring within very short periods of time ensures the survival of some prey populations

E. The population of predators most often eliminates the population of prey.