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Operant Conditioning. Cassie Tobin. What is Operant Conditioning?. The form of learning where a response increases in frequency as a result of it being followed by a reinforcement. Students often learn and demonstrate new behaviors for the consequences that those behaviors bring.

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what is operant conditioning
What is Operant Conditioning?
  • The form of learning where a response increases in frequency as a result of it being followed by a reinforcement.
  • Students often learn and demonstrate new behaviors for the consequences that those behaviors bring.
      • Example: Sandy studies hard for her Accounting test. She gets an A on the test.
terms
Terms
  • Operant – an action that operates on the environment to produce a change in the environment
  • Reinforcer – an event when which made upon the occurrence of an operant increases the probability of the operant
  • Punisher – an event when which made upon the occurrence of an operant decreases the probability of the operant
operant conditioning4
Operant Conditioning
  • A theory used by many different people.
  • B.F. Skinner and John Watson
  • Reinforcement is a main concept of the theory
  • One distinctive aspect of Skinners theory is that it attempted to provide behavioral explanations for a broad range of phenomena.
operant conditioning5
Operant Conditioning
  • Operant conditioning has been widely applied in clinical settings as well as teaching and instructional development.
operant conditioning6
Operant Conditioning
  • Appropriate and productive behaviors are acquired because of the desirable outcome that may occur.
  • Many inappropriate and undesirable behaviors may be acquired for the same reason.
three essential conditions for operant conditioning
Three Essential Conditions for Operant Conditioning
  • The individual must make a response.
  • Behaviorists say that little is accomplished when the students just sit and listen to their teacher.
  • Students are more likely to learn when they are making active responses within the classroom.
      • Example: Students will learn their cursive letters more easily by writing them.
three essential conditions for operant conditioning8
Three Essential Conditions for Operant Conditioning
  • A reinforcer must follow the response.
  • To be most effective, the reinforcer should occur immediately after the response.
  • The closer it occurs to the response the more effective it will be to the students.
    • Example: A teacher gives her students several minutes of free time after they complete an assignment.
  • Delayed reinforcers are more likely to be effective with older students.
three essential conditions for operant conditioning9
Three Essential Conditions for Operant Conditioning
  • The reinforcer must be presented only when the response has occurred.
    • Example: A teacher who praises her students only when they behave appropriately.
  • The reinforcer should never occur when the response does not occur.
    • Example: A teacher who laughs at inappropriate behavior of her students.
types of reinforcers
Types of Reinforcers
  • Positive Reinforcement – the basis of all conditioning.
  • Negative Reinforcement – involves the removal of a bad consequence when the response is performed.
  • Positive Punishment – involves the presentation of a bad consequence when the response is performed
  • Negative Punishment – involves the removal of a good consequence when the response is performed
operant conditioning vs classical conditioning
Operant Conditioning vs. Classical Conditioning
  • Classical conditioning also contains a stimulus and a response.
  • Operant conditioning varies in two ways
    • The order of the stimulus and the response.
    • The nature of the response.
how teachers should use operant conditioning in the classroom
How teachers should use Operant Conditioning in the classroom
  • Use reinforcement rather than punishment, otherwise use them together, if at all possible.
  • Select reinforcers carefully
      • Immediacy
      • Source
      • Frequency
      • Learners themselves
sources
Sources
  • http://tip.psychology.org/skinner.html
  • http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/behsys/operant.html
  • http://www.general.uwa.edu.au/u/kraepeln/bs/bs130/operant.htm