The Evolution of Advertising Age of Science Rise of Agencies Age of Print Industrial Revolution & Consumer Society Creative Era Accountability Era Advertising Declines Reintroducing Consumers to Marketing 1441- 1850 1850’s-1900 1900-1950’s 1920’s World War I-World War II 1950’s 1960’s-1970’s 1970’s- 1990’s
Historical Roles of Advertising • The Post Industrial Age (Starting 1980) • Age of social responsibility / Quality of life issues • Lifestyle advertising
Historical Roles of Advertising • The Global Interactive Age (Last 15 years) • Growth in world markets
Historical Roles of Advertising • The Pre-industrial Age (up to start of 19th century) • The Industrializing Age (To WW1) • The Industrial Age (1900’s to 1970s) • The Post Industrial Age (Starting 1980) • The Global Interactive Age
18th Century • Concrete advertising history begins with classified advertising • Ads appear for the first time in print in Hickey's Bengal Gazette. India's first newspaper (weekly) • Studios mark the beginning of advertising created in India (as opposed to imported from England) Studios set up for bold type, ornate fonts, more fancy, larger adsNewspaper studios train the first generation of visualisers & illustrators • Major advertisers: Retailers like Spencer's, Army & Navy and Whiteaway & LaidlawMarketing promotions: Retailers' catalogues provided early example • Ads appear in newspapers in the form of lists of the latest merchandise from England • Patent medicines: The first brand as we know them today were a category of advertisers • Horlicks becomes the first 'malted milk' to be patented on 5th June 1883 (No. 278967).
The 1900s • 1905- B Dattaram & Co claims to be the oldest existing Indian agency in Girgaum in Bombay • 1912- ITC (then Imperial Tobacco Co. Ltd.) launches Gold Flake • 1920s- Enter the first foreign owned ad agencies - Gujarat Advertising and Indian Advertising set up- Expatriate agencies emerge: Alliance Advertising, Tata Publicity- LA Stronach's merges into today's Norvicson Advertising- D J Keymer gives rise to Ogilvy & Mather and Clarion • 1925- LR Swami & Co, Madras
1926- LA Stronach & Co (India) Pr. Ltd, Bombay starts- Agency called National set up for American rather than British Advertisers- American importers hire Jagan Nath Jaini, then advertising manager of Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore. National today is still run by Jaini's family- Beginning of multinational agencies- J Walter Thompson (JWT) opened to service General Motors business • 1928- BOMAS Ltd (Formerly DJ Keymer & Co Ltd) set up • 1929- J Walter Thompson Co Pr. Ltd formed
Indian agencies, foreign advertising in the thirties • 1931- National Advertising Service Pr. Ltd. Bombay set up- Universal Publicity Co, Calcutta formed • 1934- VenkatraoSista opens Sista Advertising and Publicity Services as first full service Indian agency • 1935- Indian Publicity Bureau Pr Ltd, Calcutta established • 1936- Krishna Publicity Co Pr. Ltd, Kanpur begins operations- Studio RatanBatra Pr. Ltd, Bombay established - Indian Broadcasting Company becomes All India Radio (AIR) • 1938- Jayendra Publicity, Kolhapur started • 1939- Lever's advertising department launches Dalda - the first major example of a brand and a marketing campaign specifically developed for India- The Press Syndicate Ltd, Bombay set up
Indianising advertisements in the forties • 1940- Navanitlal & Co., Ahmedabad set up • 1941- Lux signs LeelaChitnis as the first Indian film actress to endorse the product - Hindustan Thompson Associates (HTA), the current incarnation of JWT, coins the Balanced Nourishment concept to make Horlicksmore relevant to India- Green's Advertising Service Agents, Bombay formed • 1943- Advertising & Sales Promotion Co (ASP), Calcutta established • 1944- Dazzal, Bombay comes into existence - Ranjit Sales & Publicity Pr. Ltd, Bombay started
1945- Efficient Publicities Pr. Ltd, Madras set up- Tom & Bay (Advertising) Pr. Ltd., Poona begins operations in India • 1946 - Eastern Psychograph Pr. Ltd., Bombay set up- Everest Advertising Pr. Ltd, Bombay established • 1947 - Grant Advertising Inc, Bombay formed- Swami Advertising Bureau, Sholapur started • 1948 - RC Advertising Co, Bombay set up- Phoenix Advertising Pr. Ltd, Calcutta formed
Corporate advertising in the fifties • 1950s- Radio Ceylon and Radio Goa become the media option • 1951- Vicks VapoRub: a rub for colds, causes ripples with its entry in the balm market • 1952- Shantilal G Shah & Co, Bombay • 1954- Advertising Club, Mumbai set up- Express Advertising Agency, Bombay - India Publicity Co. Pr. Ltd., Calcutta • 1956- Aiyars Advertising & Marketing, Bombay- Clarion Advertising Services Pr. Ltd, Calcutta • 1957- VividhBharati kicks off • 1958- Shree Advertising Agency, Bombay • 1959- Associated Publicity, Cuttack
Creative revolution in the sixties • 1960- Advertising Accessories, Trichur started - Marketing Advertising Associates, Bombay set up • 1961- Industrial Advertising Agency, Bombay comes into existence - Bal Mundkur quits BOMAS to set up Ulka the same year • 1962- India's television's first soap opera - Teesra Rasta enthrallsviewers • 1963- BOMAS changes names to SH Benson's - Stronach's absorbed into Norvicson- Lintas heading for uncertainty - Levers toying with giving its brands to other agencies - NargisWadia sets up Interpub- Wills Filter Tipped cigarettes launched and positioned as made for each other, filter and tobacco match
1965- Kersey Katrak sets up Mass Communication and Marketing (MCM) • 1966- Government persuaded to open up the broadcast media - AyazPeerbhoy sets up Marketing and Advertising Associates (MAA) • 1967- First commercial appears on VividhBharati • 1968- NariHira sets up Creative Unit- India wins the bid for the Asian Advertising Congress • 1969- Sylvester daCunha left Stronach's to run ASP; later sets up daCunha Associates • 1970- Frank Simoes sets up Frank Simoes Associates
The problematic seventies • 1970-1978- National Readership Studies provided relevant data on consumers' reading habits • 1970- Concept of commercial programming accepted by All India Radio - HasanRezavi gives the very first spot on Radio Ceylon • 1971- Benson's undergo change in name to Ogilvy, Benson & Mather • 1972- Western Outdoor Advertising Pvt Ltd (WOAPL) introduces first closed circuit TV (CCT) in the country at the race course in Mumbai • 1973- RK Swamy/BBDO established
1974- MCM goes out of business - Arun Nanda & AjitBalakrishnan set up Rediffusion • 1975- Ravi Gupta sets up Trikaya Grey • 1976- Commercial Television initiated • 1978- First television commercial seen • 1979- Ogilvy, Benson & Mather's name changes to Ogilvy & Mather
Glued to the television in the eighties • 1980- Mudra Communications Ltd set up- King-sized Virginia filter cigarette enters market with brand name of 'Charms’ • 1981- Network, associate of UTV, pioneers cable television in India • 1982- The biggest milestone in television was the Asiad '82 when television turned to colour transmission - Bombay Dyeing becomes the first colour TV ad- 13th Asian Advertising Congress in New Delhi- Media planning gets a boost • 1983- Maggi Noodles launched to become an overnight success- Canco Advertising Pvt. Ltd. founded - ManoharShyam Joshi's Hum Log makes commercial television come alive- Mudra sponsors first commercial telecast of a major sporting event with the India-West Indies series
1984- Hum Log, Doordarshan's first soap opera in the colour era is born - Viewers still remember the sponsor (Vicco) of Yeh Jo HaiZindagi! • 1985- Mudra makes India's first telefilm, Janam • 1985-86- 915 new brands of products and services appearing on the Indian Market • 1986- Sananda is born on July 31. The Bengali magazine stupefies India by selling 75,000 copies within three hours of appearing on the newsstands.- Mudra Communications creates India's first folk-history TV serial Buniyaad. Shown on DD, it becomes the first of the mega soaps- Price quality positioning of Nirma detergent cakes boost sales • 1988- AAAI's Premnarayan Award instituted • 1989- Advertising Club Bombay begins a biennial seminar called 'Advertising that Works'- Advertising & Marketing (A&M) magazine launched
Tech savvy in the nineties • 1990- Marks the beginning of new medium Internet - Agencies open new media shops; go virtual with websites and Internet advertising - Brand Equity (magazine) of The Economic Times is born • 1991- First India-targetted satellite channel, Zee TV starts broadcast - Close on the throes of the Gulf War enters STAR (Satellite Transmission for Asia Region) • 1992- Spectrum, publisher of A&M, constitutes its own award known as 'A&M Awards'- Scribes and media planners credit The Bold And The Beautiful serial on STAR Plus channel as a soap that started the cultural nvasion
1993- India's only advertising school, MICA (Mudra Institute of Communications Ahmedabad), is born - Tara on Zee TV becomes India's first female-centric soap • 1995- Advertising Club of Bombay calls its awards as Abby - Country's first brand consulting firm, SABRE (Strategic Advantage for Brand Equity) begins operations • 1996- The ad fraternity hits big time for the first time by bagging three awards at the 43rd International Advertising Festival, Cannes - Sun TV becomes the first regional TV channel to go live 24 hours a day on all days of the week
1997 - Media boom with the growth of cable and satellite; print medium sees an increase in titles, especially in specialised areas - Government turns towards professional advertising in the private sector for its VDIS campaigns - Army resorts to the services of private sector agencies - Advertising on the Internet gains popularity - Equitor Consulting becomes the only independent brand consultancy company in the country - Several exercises in changing corporate identity - For the first time ever, Indians stand the chance of winning the $ 1- million booty being offered by Gillette as part of its Football World Cup promo 1998 - Events assume important role in marketing mix - Rise of software TV producers banking on ad industry talent - Reinventing of cinema -advertising through cinema begins • 1998- Lintas becomes AmmiratiPuriLintas (APL) • 1999- B2B site agencyfaqs.com launched on September 28, 1999 - The Advertising Club Bombay announces the AdWorks Trophy
In the new millennium • 2000- Mudra launches magindia.com - India's first advertising and marketing Gallery- Lintas merges with Lowe Group to become Lowe Lintas and Partners (LLP) - bigideasunlimited.com - a portal offering free and fee ideas for money launched by Alyque Padamsee and Sam Mathews- Game shows like Kaun Banega Crorepati become a rage; media buying industry is bullish on KBC - Kyunki Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi marks the return of family- oriented soap on TV- French advertising major Publicis acquires Maadhyam • 2001- Trikaya Grey becomes Grey Worldwide- Bharti's Rs 2.75-crore corporate TV commercial, where a baby girl is born in a football stadium, becomes the most expensive campaign of the year • 2002- Lowe Lintas & Partners rechristened Lowe Worldwide- For the first time in the history of HTA, a new post of president is created. Kamal Oberoi is appointed as the first president of HTA
Historical Roles of Advertising • The Pre-industrial Age (up to start of 19th century)
Historical Roles of Advertising The Industrializing Age (Mid 1700’s Europe / 1800’s in U.S. To WW1) • Mass production / Need for mass consumption • Cost people less to buy products than to make them • Manufacturers were concerned with production
Historical Roles of Advertising • The Industrial Age(1900’s to 1970s) • Luxury goods developed • Manufacturers changed from a production orientation to a salesorientation
Types of Advertising Interactive Advertising Brand Advertising Public Service Advertising Retail or Local Advertising Institutional Advertising Political Advertising Business-to- Business Advertising Directory Advertising Direct-Response Advertising
UNITED COLORS OF BENETTON • The United Colors of Benetton: a company of colors and controversies. Offering the world an insight to fashion, as well as, human equality and world issues, Benetton gives us stylish clothing and innovative promotion. While trying to capture an audience favoring Italian character in style and design, the company additionally desires to present the world with contentious campaigns to awaken thoughts and debates. These controversies are jeopardizing Benetton’s position in the industry, and its reputation of being trendily unique and committing to world harmony. The United Colors of Benetton (Benetton), an Italian based company, is primarily focusing its business on clothing and controversial advertising.
UCB- Advertising a) How it is perceived? • Benetton has earned worldwide recognition by creating advertisement themes that promote diversity and various other social causes. • The company strives to promote itself as a socially responsible business, by supporting social organizations and discussing moral issues in its print campaigns throughout the world. • Unlike most advertisements which are centered on a company’s product or image, Benetton’s advertising campaigns addressed social and political issues.
b) Appeal of the advertisement • Most of its advertisements were severely rebuked by governments, media and general public. • But Benetton has been successful in delivering its socially responsible message amidst controversies.
d) Benetton’s communication philosophy • Benetton believes that it is important for companies to take a stance in the real world instead of using their advertising budget to perpetuate the myth that they can make consumers happy through the mere purchase of their product. • The company opted for a communication strategy in which issues and not clothes play the lead part. The company has decided to devote some of its advertising budget to communicate on themes relevant to young and old people worldwide. • Using these images in this unconventional way is an effort by Benetton to break through the complacency that exists in our society due to the constant flow of even the most horrendous realities communicated through conventional media such as the evening news or the morning paper. • By removing these images from their familiar contexts and putting them in a new context they are more likely to be noticed and given the attention they deserve as the viewer becomes involved in the process of answering the questions.
e) The Changing Society – Values (COUNTRY SPECIFIC) The Benetton’s strategy to handle the cross cultural issues is through popularizing the brand unlike most advertisements which centered around a company’s product or image, Benetton’s advertising campaigns addressed social and political issues like racial integration, AIDS awareness, war, poverty, child labor, death, pollution etc. The company tried more to “communicate” to the world about these issues rather than to “sell” apparel and accessories. In every country Benetton aimed at creating world peace and harmony. Benetton also aims at Reality advertising, by showing social issues (Two people in flood in Calcutta)
Marlboro – The Marlboro Man PERU Argentina Dominican Republic USA Hong Kong Philippines
Challenges in Achieving Local Relevance: Coca cola Keeping The Classic Look and Taste Worldwide • When Coca-Cola was first introduced into the Chinese market, Chinese characters selected sounded like Coca-Cola but actually meant, “bite the wax tadpole.” • In Russian, “enjoy” was changed to “drink,” because “enjoy” has a particular sensual connotation, in that language, that doesn’t apply to soft drinks.
US version Arab version
European version Arab version