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Alternative Aviation Fuels

Alternative Aviation Fuels

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Alternative Aviation Fuels

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  1. Alternative Aviation Fuels Tim Edwards Propulsion Directorate 88ABW-2009-4026

  2. DoD Fuel Costs Army Air Force Navy Total $4.0 $3.5 $3.0 DoD Fuel Costs Are Volatile AndHave Risen Dramatically n o l l +354% a G $2.5 r e p $2.0 e c i r P $1.5 8 - P J $1.0 $0.5 $0.0 6 8 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 7 8 7 0 9 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (1) Compiled from the Air Force Cost Analysis Agency DESC – Defense Energy Support Center Data DESC (Jul 2008) adjustment to $4.07/ Gallon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 9 9 0 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 t l t c n b n c u c e e u u J O O D F J J APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE, AFRL-WS 07-1431 4

  3. Energy Strategy Need to Consider Inter-related Consequences of Energy Strategies Aim for Balanced Solutions RZ-08-0530 Tim Skone DOE/NETL 2008

  4. U.S. Air Force Energy Approach Strategy: Reduce Demand Increase Supply Change the Culture Vision:Make Energy A Consideration In All We Do

  5. U.S. Air Force 2007 Energy Use $7 billion spent for energy in 2007 AVIATION • Fuel Used: 2.5B gallons • Fuel Cost: $5.6B FACILITIES • Energy Used: 71.2M MMBTU • Energy Costs: $1.1B GROUND EQUIPMENT AND VEHICLES • Fuel Used: 138.4 M gallons • Fuel Costs: $302.3M Aviation 81% Facilities 15% Ground Equipment 4%

  6. Consultants Universities Aircraft OEMs Think Tanks Aircraft Engine OEMs Air Transport Association Aircraft Equip Cos ATA NetJets NRC Canada AerospaceIndustriesAssociation Air Cargo Airlines ANP Brazil ACI AIA CAAFI ALPA Bauhaus Airports Council International Airport Operators UK MoD FAA ASTM Federal Aviation Administration NIST CRC Oil Companies NASA DESC Sponsors Bio-Fuels Companies USAF Energy Companies US Army DARPA DOC USN DOE USDA CAAFI’s Member / Contributors ….150 Contributors from 4 Continents The CAAFI Coalition seeks energy security and environmental sustainability for aviation, … to promote the development of alternative fuel options that offer equivalent levels of safety and compare favorably with petroleum based jet fuel on cost and environmental bases, with the specific goal of enhancing security of energy supply

  7. Alternatives to Oil:US Energy Resources Oil Shale Coal CO2 Sequestration) • Domestic Resources • 1.4 trillion barrels (shale) • 900 billion barrels of FT (coal) • 0.15 billion barrels (pet coke) • 22.7 billion barrels oil reserves • 240 billion barrels of oil (EOR) • 100 million pounds of pulp waste/year • Total 2.3+ trillion barrels equivalent

  8. Natural Gas Co Capture Coal 2 and Reuse Pet Coke Biomass CO Tail Wastes H2 Gas F-T Synthesis Gas Product Power Liquid Production Recovery Generation Synthesis O 2 Hydrogen Liquid Recovery Wax Oxygen Air Fuels H An Plant 2 Option Wax Hydrogen Hydrocracking Separation Liquid Fuels Transportation Fuels Hydrogen First Generation Alternative Fuels • Mature Process: • Fischer Tropsch is a proven process with benefits including: • Maturity: South African aviation use 1999 • CTL – South Africa, China • GTL – Malaysia, Middle East • BTL -- Germany • Chemical similarities to conventional fuels • Manufactured fuel • No sulfur • Reduced particulates • High/Low temperature stability Fischer-Tropsch Technology

  9. Fuels From Alternate Sources We Could Be the New Middle East2.3+ Trillion Barrels Old Middle East Domestic SourcesCoal and Shale Saudi Arabia: 261.8 Billion Barrels Iraq: 112.5 Billion Barrels UAE: 97.8 Billion Barrels Kuwait: 96.5 Billion Barrels Iran: 89.7 Billion Barrels Qatar: 15.2 Billion Barrels Oman: 5.5 Billion Barrels Yemen: 4.0 Billion Barrels Syria: 2.5 Billion Barrels • Appalachian States 0.9+ T Bbls • Western States 1.4+ T Bbls • TOTAL: 2.3+ T Bbls Indiana Coal: 20B Bbls TOTAL 685.5 Billion Barrels TOTAL 2.3+ T Bbls Equivalent

  10. Value Added Choices For Coal A choice to make: Electric Power Production Products Value 2 MWh electricity $70.00 Total $70.00 Combustion Gasification FT Fuels and Power Products Value 0.41MWh electricity $14.00 0.34 bbls naphtha $15.00 1.36 bbls jet fuel $81.00 Total $110.00 1 ton of Il. Coal $32/ton Gasification Fertilizer, FT Fuels and Electric Power Products Value 0.07 MWh electricity $ 0.23 0.17 bbls naphtha $ 8.00 0.78 bbls jet fuel $46.50 0.25 tons of ammonia $87.00 Total $141.73 Gasification Projected Numbers RenTech 2006

  11. Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch Franz Fisher Hans Tropsch

  12. Converting Coal to Liquid Fuel

  13. Sasol Secunda South Africa

  14. B-52 Certified for 50/50 Blend! 8 Aug 2007

  15. Alternative Fuels Certification Office Certification Process Execution • MIL-HDBK-510 – used for fuel approval • Specification – used for fuel procurement Process Owner Coordinates Single Managers Execute Single Managers Knowledge Gaps Evaluation/ Risk Analysis Sustaining Engineering Fills Gaps Tech Data Handbook Identify Gaps (System/Class) Fuel Approved “Unrestricted” No Gaps – Performs “Like” JP-8 Fuel Approved “Restricted” Fuel Approved “Unrestricted” Fuel Rejected • Process owner: ASC • Coordinates gap analysis • Coordinates sustaining engineering • Ensures data flow between SMs • Updates MIL-Handbook with lessons learned • Revise Specification (if req’d) B-52/C-17 approach consistent with this process

  16. Current USAF Perspective Early 2011 Certification Goal Certify entire AF Fleet to use a 50/50 SynFuel blend 2016 Acquisition Goal Acquire 50% of CONUSaviation fuels from domestically produced synthetic fuel-blendsfrom sources using CO2 capture and reuse AF Developing Biofuel Strategy

  17. Alternative Fuels Certification OfficeFT-Blend Summary Certification Schedule/Status FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 B-52 Today B-1 Engine Test Cert Complete Flight Complete B-2 C-17 KC-135 All Transports F-15 F-16 F-22 All Fighter/ Attack Excludes F-35 Trainers Heli /Special Excludes CV-22 GSE / ESOH / Infrastructure All USAF Systems NOTIONAL Gap Analysis Cert. Completion FSE

  18. AFRL Major Thrusts • High level goals: • 2011 – 50/50 F-T blend certification for all systems (Alternative Fuel Certification Office (AFCO)) • 2016 – 50% of domestic consumption contains synthetics (F-T + ?) (~400M gal), “greener” than petroleum, cost-competitive • AFRL major efforts (joint w/ AFPET) (coord w/ CAAFI) • F-T certification support (properties, mat’l compatibility, toxicology) • Aviation biofuel certification • Key parameters • Performance (“drop-in”) • Cost (“competitive”) • Production potential (“significant”) • Lifecycle greenhouse gas footprint (“less than petroleum”) • Sustainability (“?”)

  19. ASTM Approval of Spec and Research Rpt FT Fuel Spec ASTM Ballot FT ASTM Research Rpt OEM App’l FT ASTM Research Rpt Issued FT ASTM Research Rpt ASTM Ballot Draft FT ASTM Research Rpt Nov Dec Aug Sept Oct July DARPA Fuel Samples at WPAFB DXXXX Spec Ballot DXXXX Spec Wrkg Grp HRJ ASTM Research Rpt Issued HRJ Task Force HRJ xx% Blend ASTM App’l HRJ ASTM App’l 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Federal Aviation Administration Timeline Summary Near-Term Strategy 2008 Longer-Term Strategy ASTM Synthetic Fuels Task Force 19 19 December 8, 2008 Mark Rumizen, CAAFI

  20. Certification “Pipeline” incubator • Fuels may travel along conveyor at different rates! • AF energy security goals benefit by feedstock diversity Potential alternative fuels New! DESC Solicitation SP0600-09-R-0704 600K gal moving fast, “drafting” F-T SPK DARPA ? non-HRJ bio 100% F-T 100% bio HRJ 50/50 TRL 1 TRL 5-6 R&D New! ASTM D7566 TRL 9 Certification F-T SPK 50/50 Jet A/A-1 Sasol FSJF ‘08 Sasol SSJF ‘99 Approved fuels (ASTM D7566, MIL-DTL-83133F) JP-8/5

  21. Aviation Alternative fuels must have a life cycle greenhouse gas footprint equal or less than petroleum (Sect 526 EISA 2007) FAA Partner Studies MIT Partner Study

  22. U.S. Air Force Greenhouse Gas Inventory Initiative • Voluntary carbon dioxide (CO2) inventory used to: • Evaluate policy and operational impacts • Support sustainability • Identify risk areas • Understand investment and mitigation areas CO2 inventory paves way for change

  23. Life-Cycle GHG Emissions Results - H.M. Wong S.M. Thesis (2008)Baseline Emissions Representative Results Air Force Leading a Multi-Agency/University LCA Analysis Team

  24. Potential for Renewable Fuels - H.M. Wong S.M. Thesis (2008)5Carbon Neutral U.S. Aviation Growth • Assessed potential for carbon neutral growth from 2006 to 2025. • Analysis used biofuel life-cycle GHG emissions and yield per hectare. • Circles show land area requirements for three existing and two hypothetical feedstocks. • Soybean and palm requirements both exceed current production levels. • Analysis looked at single feedstock solutions – practical approach is to consider multiple feedstock solutions. • Need feedstocks with high yield and low life-cycle emissions that do not require arable land. Notes: 1. Assumed no land use change emissions with all of the feedstocks. 2. Land areas are given relative to continental U.S. for illustrative purposes (e.g., palm trees do not grow in Colorado). Jim Hileman MIT

  25. Sustainability • Need to develop an aviation consensus view • Environmental sustainability • Water usage • Water pollution • Local air quality • Global air quality • Land use changes • Business sustainability • Aviation sector performance is closely linked to fuel costs

  26. Uncertainties: Feedstock variation Process efficiency Carbon capture efficiency Land use change scenarios: Use Marginal Land or Waste Product Conversion of Brazilian Cerrado Wide-Spread Agricultural Changes Destruction of Peatland Rain Forest Quantifying Well-to-Wake Benefits - Hileman et al. (2008)5Assessing Uncertainties Jim Hileman MIT

  27. How Does the Cost of Carbon Effect the Price of Fossil/Bio Fuels? Tim Skone DOE/NETL

  28. AF Alternative Fuel Score Card Business Readiness $1.00 Economic Readiness Med Med Med

  29. Summary • Alternative fuels offer potential to reduce green house gases and particulate emissions • Air Force will certify its entire fleet by 2011 to use a 50/50 blend of FT fuels • FT fuels can be produced from coal, biomass, natural gas as well as coal and biomass • Sect 526 EISA 2007 governs DoD purchases of alternative fuels • Coal derived FT fuels could be produced with a CO2 footprint equal to or less than petroleum • Developing assessment “rules and tools” to compare alternative fuels

  30. Aviation Biofuel Production Options “second generation” - ? “first generation” - ? Cellulose C16:1 C18:0 Triglycerides (fats, oils) pyrolysis oil “HRJ” “Bio SPK” gasification (or co-gasification with coal) Lignin hydroprocessing 2 Fischer-Tropsch “BTL” CO + H2 1 alcohols catalysis jet fuel components Sugars “direct fermentation”

  31. Certification Processes – MIL-HDBK-510, ASTM D4054 which rigs? which engines?

  32. Fit-for-Purpose Test Results(for Research Report) Planned Completed on multiple samples In progress • FIT-FOR-PURPOSE PROPERTIES • ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES • Dielectric Constant vs Density • Electrical Conductivity and Response to Static Dissapator • GROUND HANDLING/SAFETY • Effect on Clay Filtration • Fitration (Coalescers & monitors) • Storage Stability • Peroxides • Potential Gum • Toxicity • Flammability Limits • Autoignition Temperature • Hot Surface Ignition Temp • COMPATIBILITY • Other Additives/Fuels • Engine/Airframe Seals, Coatings, Metallics FIT-FOR-PURPOSE PROPERTIES CHEMISTRY Hydrocarbon chemistry (carbon number, type, distribution) Trace Materials/Metals BULK PHYSICAL AND PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES Boiling Pt Distribution Vapor/Liquid Ratio Thermal Stability Breakpoint Lubricity Response to Lube Improver Viscosity vs Temp Specific Heat vs Temp Density vs Temp Surface Tension vs Temp Bulk Modulus vs Temp Thermal Conductivity vs Temp Water Solubility vs Temp Solubility of Air (oxygen/nitrogen)

  33. Research Reports • Used to support commercial specifications (data also used for military certification) • Addresses whether “drop-in” fuels fall within experience base

  34. Experience Base • World Fuel Survey • PQIS database • Newly developed data NIST

  35. D1655 5.1 Materials and Manufacture Table 1 D7566 Av Turbine Fuel Containing Syn HC’s Table 1 Annex 1 Annex 2 Blended Fuel Performance Properties 50% Hydpross’d SPK Fuel Blends Other Adv Fuels or Processes Annex 3 Other Adv Fuels or Processes ASTM D7566 Fuel Specification • Key Provisions • Body of Spec Applies to Finished Semi-Synthetic Fuel • Annex for Each Class of Synthetic Blending Component • Allow Re-Certification to D1655 • No need for separate tracking • Annex 1 • Hydroprocessed SPK • Includes 50% FT Fuel • Issued in August 2009 • Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Added to Annex 1 in Next Revision Fuel Produced to D7566 Can Be Designated as D1655 Fuel Blend Comp’s Criteria and Blend % Limits

  36. Baseline Fischer-Tropsch Fuels • Form basis of Research Report to support specification C-5, C-130, A-10, F-16 C-17, B-1, F-15 F-22, KC-135R Cetane = 31 Cetane=60 B-52, T-38 n-paraffins Cetane=60 36

  37. Alternative FuelsOn-Going Analysis TRL 9 –current fuels JP-8, Jet A 4751 JP - 8 -- > 5 10 15 20 25 30 F-T SPK (blend stock) TRL 8 – generic F-T 50/50 HRJ - hydrotreated fats/oils (blend stock) C C C 9 10 C 11 12 C TRL 5 (?) – HRJ 50/50 (flight demonstrated) C 13 C C 14 8 15 C C C 16 7 C C 17 18 19 TRL 2 More Challenging Biofuels 5 30 10 15 20 25 TRL 2-3 5 10 20 25 30 Time -- > 15

  38. Combustion Evaluation • Aromatics, cycloparaffins, n- and i-paraffins • Hydrocarbon chain length Composition Combustion Performance Properties • Lean blow out • Altitude relight • Transient accel/decel • Instability • Emissions/efficiency • Liner/nozzle heating • Engine control response • … • Density vs T • Viscosity vs T • Flash point • Heat of combustion • Boiling range • Vapor pressure • Surface tension • Cetane • …

  39. Prototype Combustion Evaluation Process Fundamental expts fail pass Flame tube rigs Sector rigs Full annular Engines

  40. “Biocarbon” Analysis • ASTM D6866 assesses fraction of carbon that is “modern” using C14 • Initial assessment Fuel WPAFB JP-8 Sasol IPK Shell SPK Syntroleum R-8 R-8X JP-8/R-8 50/50 UOP DARPA “biojet” Feedstock petroleum coal nat. gas fat/oil Salicornia blend bio + pet. aromatics % modern C 0 0 0 96 100 49 73

  41. Summary • Interest in alternative fuels remains high • Biomass-derived fuels are current S&T focus • “Drop-in” petroleum replacements/blendstocks are focus in near term – fully synthetic in mid term • Assessment criteria must be defined: performance, cost, manufacturing potential, GHG footprint, sustainability • Biofuels may not always be “greener” than petroleum or CBTL (w/CCS) • Scale-up/cost/land use issues

  42. SECNAV Energy Goals • At the Naval Energy Forum, the Honorable Ray Mabus expressed support for President Obama’s goal to reduce consumption of fuel and water and reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions. He announced five DON Energy Goals: New Requirements for Acquisition Processes • Mandatory evaluation factors used when awarding contracts for platforms, weapon systems, and buildings will include: • Lifecycle energy costs • Fully-burdened cost of fuel • Contractor energy footprint Sail the “Great Green Fleet” • DON will demonstrate a Green Strike Group in local operations by 2012 and sail it by 2016 • Nuclear ships • Surface combatants using biofuels with hybrid electric power systems • Aircraft flying on biofuels Reduce Petroleum Use in Non-Tactical Vehicles • By 2015, DON will reduce petroleum use in the commercial fleet by 50 percent • Flex fuel vehicles • Hybrid electric vehicles • Neighborhood electric vehicles Increase Alternative Energy Ashore • By 2020, DON will produce at least 50 percent of shore-based energy requirements from alternative sources • Solar, Wind, Ocean, Geothermal Increase Alternative Energy Use Navy-wide • By 2020, 50 percent of total DON energy consumption will come from alternative sources

  43. What’s Next After HRJ? • Fully synthetic fuels (cycloparaffins, aromatics for density, seal swell) • Need to access non-fat/oil feedstocks • Fermentation (w/ microorganisms) to alcohols, conversion to hydrocarbons (or direct) • Initially using sugar, ultimate goal is cellulosic • Pyrolysis of ligno-cellulosics dehydration, oligomerization, hydroprocessing fermentation jet fuels, components sugars alcohols “direct fermentation” stabilization, hydroprocessing jet fuels, components biomass “pyrolysis oil”

  44. Gevo Public Data • Fermentation to isobutanol, followed by dehydration/ oligomerization/hydroprocessing