PLANNING AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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PLANNING AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY
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PLANNING AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY

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  1. PLANNING AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY

  2. Introduction Sources of Radiological Emergency Prevention of Radiological Accidents Types of Emergency in Industrial Radiography Emergency Plan and Procedures Response Actions During an Emergency Emergency Equipment Decontamination Accident Reports Contents

  3. Emergency are an abnormal situations which can lead to radiological injury. It most likely to occur when ionizing radiation are not being properly handled or used according to procedures and instruction. Different actions are required for different emergency situations. Introduction

  4. Common malpractices in safety industrial radiography: Failure to wear personnel monitoring devices. Failure to make radiation survey during the course of their job. Failure to clearly define the radiographic boundary. Failure to take the slightest effort to minimise the unnecessary exposure. Failure to place warning signs and signals. Communication breakdown between the workers. Introduction

  5. Radiological emergency can be divided into: Lost of control to radiation worker. Lost of control to X-ray equipment. Lost of control to radioactive source. Other events such as transport accident and fire. Sources of Radiological Emergency

  6. Lost of control to radiation worker: Negligence of the operator: Forgets to terminate the exposure. Failure to retract the source. Tube assembly is energised unintentionally. Illegal entry of unauthorised person in controlled area. Failure of the operator to perform adequate radiation survey before allowing persons into the controlled area. Sources of Radiological Emergency

  7. Lost of control to X-ray equipment: Failure of automatic timer. Device energised accidentally. Damaged, faulty or defeated safety systems. Physical damage affecting shielding. Sources of Radiological Emergency

  8. Lost of control to radioactive source: Source stuck in the guide tube, collimator or near the entrance to the exposure container. Source disconnected from the gamma projector cable. Source stuck in the exposed position, e.g. failure of shutter to close. Theft of the exposure device or source assembly. Malfunction or deliberate defeat of the safety control system. Contamination due to leaking or damaged sources. Sources of Radiological Emergency

  9. Transport accident: This is quite probable in the case of industrial radiography since the equipment used is in portable form and it is being moved around quite regular. Accidents involving vehicles carrying the equipment may lead to possible damage caused on exposure devices on board. Fire: Fire erupted in a storage place where industrial radiography equipment is kept may cause damage to the equipment and leakage of radioactive material from the source. Sources of Radiological Emergency

  10. The following simple rules should be taken into consideration and observed closely: All workers involved should be familiar with all of the equipment, their mode of operation and potential problems. Radiography must be carried out only when the exposure container and other necessary equipment are in good working conditions. Before leaving to the work site, the operator/radiation worker should carry out a visual inspection on the exposure device. This includes checking the source assembly/male and female connectors using No-Go gauge. Only calibrated survey meter and annually maintained exposure device should be used. Prevention of Radiological Accidents

  11. Emergency can be classified into four types: Level 1 – consequences are limited to a single room / laboratory / building. Level 2 – consequences are limited to the perimeter of the facility. Level 3 – consequences might have significance outside the outer perimeter of the facility involved. Level 4 – consequences might have a trans-boundary effect as defined in the early notification convention. Types of Emergency in Industrial Radiography

  12. An emergency plan is established with aims: to limit the exposure to as low as reasonably achievable; to control and bring the situation back to normal immediately after an accident happened; and to gather information for the purpose of assessment and taking corrective action. Emergency Plan and Procedures

  13. The plan should be clear, specific, simple, concise and easily understood by all workers involved. The plan must also meet all local requirements and needs. The plan should be able: to address all possible accidents that can happen with all radiation sources belong to a licensee; and to identify the emergency organisation involved and response action taken during the accident. Emergency Plan and Procedures

  14. Hierarchy of Command: A clear line of command should be established in order to carry out immediate and effective emergency response actions. The hierarchy of command is as follows: the first in line of command is the RPO. the second is the RPS and then followed by radiographers Emergency Plan and Procedures

  15. Hierarchy of Command (cont.): Duties and responsibilities: Radiographer (first responder on-scene): Radiographer initiates the response, performs immediate actions to mitigate the accident and informs the RPO or RPS. Radiation Protection Supervisor (RPS): the person in-charge of the overall emergency response and manages the priorities and the protection of the public and emergency workers. RPS can be the operating manager/supervisor during radiographic work on site (approved by AELB to become RPS). RPS should prepare a preliminary investigation report to RPO. Emergency Plan and Procedures

  16. Hierarchy of Command (cont.): Radiation Protection Officer (RPO): RPO is responsible for radiation surveys, dose assessment, contamination, control, radiation protection support to emergency workers and the formulation of protective action recommendations. RPO can appoint external emergency support group when required. For a small company, one of the radiographers may be the RPO or RPS at the same time, in which case he should also carry out all the duties and responsibilities mentioned above. Emergency Plan and Procedures

  17. Reporting procedures: Notification to RPO The radiographers should immediately notify the RPO of any abnormal situation in order to allow the RPO to initiate emergency response and investigation of the accident. Notification to the Regulatory Authority In all cases of emergency the licensee must inform the AELB as soon as possible (within 24 hours). type of radioisotope and activity level location and general status of the problem time of accident personal involved RPO shall submit full accident investigation report within 30 days of the accident. Emergency Plan and Procedures

  18. Monitoring assessment: The objectives of monitoring assessment are to assess the severity of accident and to plan for the most appropriate control measure taken to control the situation. Emergency Plan and Procedures

  19. Immediate control measure for radiological emergency: The objectives are to: reduce radiation exposure to workers and public; and to regain control of the radioactive materials and the site in order to restore the situation to normal. The immediate control measures are as follows: Turn-off the X-ray machine if involved X-rays. Control of access. Sheltering and shielding. Evacuation and condone the area. Personnel protection – time, distance and shielding. Emergency Plan and Procedures

  20. Coordination between AELB and other relevant agencies: The responsibilities for dealing with an accident involving radioactive material will rest with the user, Regulatory Authority, the local emergency personnel (local authorities, police, fire brigade, medical services, etc), and the appropriate authorities. The magnitude and severity of the accident will generally determine the level of involvement from the above authorities. Emergency Plan and Procedures

  21. Recovery actions: Recovery actions should be initiated after the emergency situation has been stabilised and placed under control. The recovery actions may include the following: Identify the type of emergency - the overall objective is to return the radiographic source to its fully shielded position. Verify radiographic source location through good survey practices. Locate precise location of source for retrieval. Plan source retrieval – planning depends on the position of radioactive source. During source retrieval the maximum permissible times must be adhered to. Emergency Plan and Procedures

  22. Estimated Maximum Permissible Times for Rescue Operation Involving Ir-192 source (10mSv – Hand) Emergency Plan and Procedures

  23. Estimated Maximum Permissible Times for Rescue Operation Involving Co-60 source (10 mSv – Hand) Emergency Plan and Procedures

  24. Response actions during and after an emergency involving X-ray equipment (cont.): Once the accident is established, the following actions must be taken: Actions to be taken by radiographer: Switch the machine off immediately. Perform a radiation survey to confirm that the tube is de-energised. Leave everything as it is until the equipment’s details, such as position, beam direction, exposure settings) are recorded. Response Actions During and After an Emergency

  25. Response actions during and after an emergency involving X-ray equipment (cont.): Once the accident is established, the following actions must be taken: Actions to be taken by radiographer: Ask any person who may have been exposed to remain at the safe area of the site. Inform the person in charge of the area of the accident. Contact the RPO (or RPS) and inform him of what has happened. Do not use the device until it is examined and repaired as necessary by a qualified expert or manufacturer. Response Actions During and After an Emergency

  26. Response actions during and after an emergency involving X-ray equipment (cont.): Once the accident is realized, the following actions must be taken: Actions to be taken by RPO: Notify the appropriate authority as required. Investigate and reconstruct the accident, assess the doses received by each workers involved and prepare a report. Send TLD/film badge of exposed personal to a recognized laboratory (e.g. MINT) for immediate exposure assessment. Response Actions During and After an Emergency

  27. Response actions during and after an emergency involving radiographic sources: Most gamma radiography incidents involve failure of a radiographic source to return to its shielded position: Source capsule assembly disconnected from its cable resulting in radiographic source lodged in collimator. Source capsule assembly retracted but not into fully shielded position. Source capsule assembly stuck in source guide tube. Source capsule assembly stuck in source guide tube nozzle. Response Actions During and After an Emergency

  28. Response actions during and after an emergency involving radiographic sources (cont.): Most gamma radiography incidents involve failure of a radiographic source to return to its shielded position:  Actions to be taken by radiographer: Move away from the exposed source and remain calm. Using a survey-meter establish a new safe barrier (e.g. beyond which the dose rate is less than 2.5Sv/hr). Restrict access to this new barrier; and display a warning light and radiation warning notice. Do not leave the controlled area unattended. Response Actions During and After an Emergency

  29. Response actions during and after an emergency involving radiographic sources (cont.): Most gamma radiography incidents involve failure of a radiographic source to return to its shielded position:  Actions to be taken by radiographer (cont.): detain any persons who may have been inside the barrier during the accident plan carefully a course of action while outside the barrier prepare all emergency equipment required for the rescue operation Call for assistance from the supervisor (RPS) who will summon the RPO for further advice. Response Actions During and After an Emergency

  30. Response actions during and after an emergency involving radiographic sources (cont.): Most gamma radiography incidents involve failure of a radiographic source to return to its shielded position. Actions to be taken by RPS or RPO: If the source is already returned into its container. Check the shielding and its inter-locking system. Do not allow personnel involved in recovery operation from further radiation work until their doses have been established. Send the TLD/film badges worn by personnel involved to the recognized SSDL for immediate assessment. Response Actions During and After an Emergency

  31. Response actions during and after an emergency involving radiographic sources (cont.): Most gamma radiography incidents involve failure of a radiographic source to return to its shielded position. Actions to be taken by RPS or RPO: If the source is still outside its container: Classify the emergency into Level 1 or Level 2. Plan and rehearse course of action before entering controlled area. Do not allow exposed radiation worker(s) from carrying out recovery operation until the dose they received have been established. Response Actions During and After an Emergency

  32. Response actions during and after an emergency involving radiographic sources (cont.): Most gamma radiography incidents involve failure of a radiographic source to return to its shielded position. Actions to be taken by RPS or RPO: If the source is still outside its container (cont.): Check the barrier, warning signals and notices are satisfactory. Make attempt to return the source into its container according to the planned course of action. If action is unsuccessful, leave the controlled area under surveillance. Call technical assistance, if needed, from qualified experts or manufacturers. Response Actions During and After an Emergency

  33. Response actions during and after an emergency involving radiographic sources (cont.): Most gamma radiography incidents involve failure of a radiographic source to return to its shielded position. Actions to be taken by RPS or RPO: If the source is still outside its container (cont.): Do not allow personnel involved in recovery operation from further radiation work until their doses have been established. When the emergency is resolved, reconstruct the accident, assess the doses received and prepare a report. Send the TLD/film badges worn by personnel involved to a recognised SSDL for immediate assessment. Response Actions During and After an Emergency

  34. Response actions during and after an emergency involving radiographic sources (cont.): Most gamma radiography incidents involve failure of a radiographic source to return to its shielded position. Actions to be taken by RPS or RPO: If the source is still outside its container (con.): Send the damaged or malfunctioning equipment to the manufacturer or maintenance centre for a detailed inspection before reuse. Notify the AELB. Prepare a detailed report of the accident to be submitted to the AELB. Response Actions During and After an Emergency

  35. Response actions during and after an emergency involving radiographic sources (cont.): A missing or stolen exposure device containing radiographic source: Actions to be taken by radiographer: Initiate an immediate search, using a radiation survey meter. If the source has been lost in transit, retrace the planned route and search visually with the aid of radiation survey meter. If it is confirmed that the source is lost or stolen, notify the RPO immediately. Response Actions During and After an Emergency

  36. Response actions during and after an emergency involving radiographic sources (cont.): A missing or stolen exposure device containing radiographic source (cont.): Actions to be taken by RPS or RPO: Classify the emergency into Level 1 or Level 2 and Initiate emergency plan. Communicate with relevant authorities, media and public, when necessary, to help locate the missing source. When the source is found, inspect it for evidence of any damage. Send the damaged or malfunctioning equipment to the manufacturer or maintenance centre for a detailed inspection before reuse. Notify the AELB. Prepare a detailed report of the accident to be submitted to the AELB. Response Actions During and After an Emergency

  37. Response actions during and after an emergency involving radiographic sources (cont.): Fire involving exposure room: Actions to be taken by radiographer: Immediately vacate the area of any personnel. Switch off ventilation system and electricity supply to the affected areas. Fight the fire using any readily available fire fighting equipment. Request the assistance of in-house fire fighting team. If fire cannot be put out, inform the RPO/RPS for further action. Response Actions During and After an Emergency

  38. Response actions during and after an emergency involving radiographic sources (cont.): Fire involving exposure room(cont.): Actions to be taken by RPS or RPO: Classify the emergency into Level 1 or Level 2. In case of Level 2, request for an assistance from outside support groups especially the Fire Department. Erect barriers around the site and prevent access to them. Notify the AELB. Prepare a detailed report of the accident to be submitted to the AELB. Response Actions During and After an Emergency

  39. Response actions during and after an emergency involving radiographic sources (cont.): Transport accident: Actions to be taken by driver/radiographer: The driver should take immediate action according to instructions given in the transport document. In addition, the driver should: Put up a physical barrier and warning signs around the accident site. Immediately inform the RPO/RPS and provide all the necessary information to him/her. Take further action based on advice of the RPO/RPS. Response Actions During and After an Emergency

  40. Response actions during and after an emergency involving radiographic sources (cont.): Transport accident (cont.): Actions to be taken by RPS or RPO: Advise the driver on further course of actions to be taken in case of emergency Level 1. In case of emergency Level 2, request for an assistance from outside support groups nearest to the accident site. Notify the AELB and the consignor. Prepare a detailed report of the incident to be submitted to the AELB. Response Actions During and After an Emergency

  41. The equipment for emergency includes the following: Radiation measuring instrument: high range gamma survey instrument – up to several Sv/hr long range survey instrument contamination monitor or probe integrative personnel dosimeter self-reading dosimeters for each team member film badge for each team member check source for low range survey instruments Emergency Equipment

  42. The equipment for emergency includes the following (cont.): Accessories/supplies: appropriate shielding (lead shots, lead sheet) tong at least 1.5 m a shielded container (lead pot) appropriate hand tools (e.g. Long-handled pliers / Cutter) radiation warning labels and signages plastic for preventing contamination of instruments log book, rope, and stop watch Emergency Equipment

  43. The equipment for emergency includes the following (cont.): Personal protective equipment e.g. protective overalls, overshoes and gloves. Communication equipment. Supporting documentation: equipment operating manuals emergency response procedures procedures for conducting monitoring procedures for personal radiation protection Emergency Equipment

  44. Contamination may occur during accident as a result of source leak or damage of exposure container or projector where some shielding material is made of depleted uranium. In this case personnel and/or area decontamination may be required. Decontamination

  45. A written accident report should be prepared and submitted to the AELB. Full written report to AELB should be submitted within 30 days. The report should include the following items: Description of the accident. Actions taken during emergency. Assessments of dose (workers, emergency services personnel, member of the public). The cause of the accident and corrective actions. Any necessary improvements to enhance safety. Accident Reports

  46. Accident reports will also be evaluated by the AELB in conjunction with the operating organisation and manufacturer or supplier as appropriate. The lessons learned from the accident have to be communicated to all personnel involved, and any necessary improvement to enhance safety should be carried out. Accident Reports

  47. Summary

  48. Thank Youfor your attention