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Lecture 30. To do :. Chapter 21 Understand beats as the superposition of two waves of unequal frequency. Prep for final (Room B103 Van Vleck) Evaluations Tomorrow: Review session, 2103 CH at 1:20 PM. Assignment HW12, Due Friday, May 8 th , midnight. DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE.

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Lecture 30 l.jpg
Lecture 30

To do :

  • Chapter 21

    • Understand beats as the superposition of two waves of unequal frequency.

      Prep for final (Room B103 Van Vleck)

      Evaluations

      Tomorrow: Review session, 2103 CH at 1:20 PM

  • Assignment

    • HW12, Due Friday, May 8th , midnight


Superposition interference l.jpg

DESTRUCTIVEINTERFERENCE

CONSTRUCTIVEINTERFERENCE

Superposition & Interference

  • Consider two harmonic waves A and B meet at t=0.

    • They have same amplitudes and phase, but

      2 = 1.15 x 1.

  • The displacement versus time for each is shown below:

Beat Superposition

A(1t)

B(2t)

C(t) =A(t)+B(t)


Superposition interference3 l.jpg
Superposition & Interference

  • Consider A + B,[Recall cos u + cos v = 2 cos((u-v)/2) cos((u+v)/2)]

    yA(x,t)=A cos(k1x–2p f1t)yB(x,t)=A cos(k2x–2p f2t)

    And let x=0, y=yA+yB = 2A cos[2p (f1 – f2)t/2] cos[2p (f1 + f2)t/2]

    and |f1 – f2| ≡ fbeat = = 1 / Tbeat f average≡ (f1 + f2)/2

A(1t)

B(2t)

t

Tbeat

C(t)=A(t)+B(t)


Exercise superposition l.jpg
Exercise Superposition

  • The traces below show beats that occur when two different pairs of waves are added (the time axes are the same).

  • For which of the two is the difference in frequency of the original waves greater?

Pair 1

Pair 2

The frequency difference was the samefor both pairs of waves.

Need more information.


Organ pipe example l.jpg
Organ Pipe Example

A 0.9 m organ pipe (open at both ends) is measured to have it’s first harmonic (i.e., its fundamental) at a frequency of 382 Hz. What is the speed of sound (refers to energy transfer) in this pipe?

L=0.9 m

f = 382 Hzandf l = vwith l = 2 L / m(m = 1)

v = 382 x 2(0.9) m  v = 687 m/s


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Standing Wave Question

  • What happens to the fundamental frequency of a pipe, if the air (v =300 m/s) is replaced by helium (v = 900 m/s)?

    Recall: f l = v

    (A) Increases (B) Same (C) Decreases


Sample problem l.jpg
Sample Problem

  • The figure shows a snapshot graph D(x, t = 2 s) taken at t = 2 s of a pulse traveling to the left along a string at a speed of 2.0 m/s. Draw the history graph D(x = −2 m, t) of the wave at the position x = −2 m.


Sample problem8 l.jpg

2

-2

3

4

6

7

2

5

time (sec)

Sample Problem

  • History Graph:


Example problem l.jpg
Example problem

  • Two loudspeakers are placed 1.8 m apart. They play tones of equal frequency. If you stand 3.0 m in front of the speakers, and exactly between them, you hear a maximum of intensity.

  • As you walk parallel to the plane of the speakers, staying 3.0 m away, the sound intensity decreases until reaching a minimum when you are directly in front of one of the speakers. The speed of sound in the room is 340 m/s.

    a. What is the frequency of the sound?

    b. Draw, as accurately as you can, a wave-front diagram. On your diagram, label the positions of the two speakers, the point at which the intensity is maximum, and the point at which the intensity is minimum.

    c. Use your wave-front diagram to explain why the intensity is a minimum at a point 3.0 m directly in front of one of the speakers.


Example problem10 l.jpg
Example problem

  • Two loudspeakers are placed 1.8 m apart. They play tones of equal frequency. If you stand 3.0 m in front of the speakers, and exactly between them, you hear a maximum of intensity.

  • As you walk parallel to the plane of the speakers, staying 3.0 m away, the sound intensity decreases until reaching a minimum when you are directly in front of one of the speakers. The speed of sound in the room is 340 m/s.

  • What is the frequency of the sound?

    v = f l but we don’t know f or l

    DRAW A PICTURE

Constructive Interference in-phase

Destructive Interference out-of-phase


Example problem11 l.jpg
Example problem

  • Two loudspeakers are placed 1.8 m apart. They play tones of equal frequency. If you stand 3.0 m in front of the speakers, and exactly between them, you hear a maximum of intensity.

  • v = 340 m/s.

    PUT IN GEOMETRY

    v = f l but we don’t know f or l

    AC - BC = 0 (0 phase differenc)

    AD - BD = l/2(p phase shift)

    AD = (3.02+1.82)1/2

    BD = 3.0

    l = 2(AD-BD) =1.0 m

Constructive Interference in-phase

3.0 m

A

C

1.8 m

D

B

Destructive Interference out-of-phase


Example problem12 l.jpg
Example problem

  • Two loudspeakers are placed 1.8 m apart. They play tones of equal frequency. If you stand 3.0 m in front of the speakers, and exactly between them, you hear a maximum of intensity.

    b. Draw, as accurately as you can, a wave-front diagram. On your diagram, label the positions of the two speakers, the point at which the intensity is maximum, and the point at which the intensity is minimum.

    c. Use your wave-front diagram to

    explain why the intensity is a

    minimum at a point 3.0 m

    directly in front of one of the speakers.


Sample problem13 l.jpg
Sample problem

  • A tube, open at both ends, is filled with an unknown gas. The tube is 190 cm in length and 3.0 cm in diameter. By using different tuning forks, it is found that resonances can be excited at frequencies of 315 Hz, 420 Hz, and 525 Hz, and at no frequencies in between these.

    a. What is the speed of sound in this gas?

    b. Can you determine the amplitude of the wave? If so, what is it? If not, why not?


Sample problem14 l.jpg
Sample problem

  • A tube, open at both ends, is filled with an unknown gas. The tube is 190 cm in length and 3.0 cm in diameter. By using different tuning forks, it is found that resonances can be excited at frequencies of 315 Hz, 420 Hz, and 525 Hz, and at no frequencies in between these.

    What is the speed of sound in this gas?

    L=1.9 meters and fm = vm/2L

    315 = v m/2L

    420 = v (m+1)/2L

    525 = v (m+2)/2L

    v/2L = 105

    v = 3.8 x 105 m/s =400 m/s

    b) Can you determine the amplitude of the wave? If so, what is it? If not, why not?

    Answer: No, the sound intensity is required and this is not known.


Sample problem15 l.jpg
Sample Problem

  • The picture below shows two pulses approaching each other on a stretched string at time t = 0 s. Both pulses have a speed of 1.0 m/s. Using the empty graph axes below the picture, draw a picture of the string at t = 4 s.


An example l.jpg

B

C

A

An example

  • A heat engine uses 0.030 moles of helium as its working substance. The gas follows the thermodynamic cycle shown.

    a. Fill in the missing table entries

    b. What is the thermal efficiency of this engine?

    c. What is the maximum possible thermal efficiency of an engine that operates between Tmax and Tmin?

A: T= 400 K

B: T=2000 K

C: T= 1050 K


The full cyclic process l.jpg
The Full Cyclic Process

  • A heat engine uses 0.030 moles of helium as its working substance. The gas follows the thermodynamic cycle shown.

    a. What is the thermal efficiency of this engine?

    b. What is the maximum possible thermal efficiency of an engine that operates between Tmax and Tmin?

    (T = pV/nR, pVg =const.)

A: T= 400 K=1.01x105 10-3/ 0.030/8.3

B: T=2000 K

pBVBg = pCVCg

(pBVBg / pC )1/g = VC

(5 (10-3)5/3 / 1)3/5 = VC = 2.6 x 10-3 m3

C: T= 1050 K

B

C

A


The full cyclic process18 l.jpg

B

C

A

The Full Cyclic Process

A: T= 400 K=1.01x105 10-3/ 0.030/8.3

B: T=2000 K

VC = 2.6 x 10-3 m3

C: T= 1050 K

Q = n CvDT = 0.030 x 1.5 x 8.3 DT

Q = 0.3735 DT

WCA (by)= p DV = 1.01x105 1.6 x 10-3 J

h = Wby / QH = 194/ 600 = 0.32

hCarnot = 1- TL / TH= 1- 400/2000 =0.80


An example19 l.jpg
An example

  • A monatomic gas is compressed isothermally to 1/8 of its original volume.

  • Do each of the following quantities change? If so, does the quantity increase or decrease, and by what factor? If not, why not?

    a. The rms speed vrms

    b. The temperature

    c. The mean free path

    d. The molar heat capacity CV


An example20 l.jpg
An example

  • A creative chemist creates a small molecule which resembles a freely moving bead on a wire (rotaxanes are an example). The wire is fixed and the bead does not rotate.

  • If the mass of the bead is 10-26 kg, what is the rms speed of the bead at 300 K?

Below is a rotaxane model with three “beads” on a short wire


An example21 l.jpg
An example

  • A creative chemist creates a small molecule which resembles a freely moving bead on a wire (rotaxanes are an example). Here the wire is a loop and rigidly fixed and the bead does not rotate.

  • If the mass of the bead is 10-26 kg, what is the rms speed of the bead at 300 K?

Classically there is ½ kBT of thermal energy per degree of freedom.

Here there is only one so:

½ mvrms2 = ½ kBoltzmannT

vrms=(kBoltzmannT/m)½ = 640 m/s


An example22 l.jpg
An example

  • A small speaker is placed in front of a block of mass 4 kg. The mass is attached to a Hooke’s Law spring with spring constant 100 N/m. The mass and speaker have a mechanical energy of 200 J and are undergoing one dimensional simple harmonic motion. The speaker emits a 200 Hz tone.

  • For a person is standing directly in front of the speaker, what range of frequencies does he/she hear?

  • The closest the speaker gets to the person is 1.0 m. By how much does the sound intensity vary in terms of the ratio of the loudest to the softest sounds?


An example23 l.jpg
An example

  • A small speaker is placed in front of a block of mass 4 kg. The mass is attached to a Hooke’s Law spring with spring constant 100 N/m. The mass and speaker have a mechanical energy of 200 J and are undergoing one dimensional simple harmonic motion. The speaker emits a 200 Hz tone. (vsound = 340 m/s)

  • For a person is standing directly in front of the speaker, what range of frequencies does he/she hear?

    Emech=200 J = ½ mvmax2 = ½ kA2  vmax=10 m/s

    Now use expression for Doppler shift where

    vsource= + 10 m/s and – 10 m/s


An example24 l.jpg
An example

  • A small speaker is placed in front of a block of mass 4 kg. The mass is attached to a Hooke’s Law spring with spring constant 100 N/m. The mass and speaker have a mechanical energy of 200 J and are undergoing one dimensional simple harmonic motion. The speaker emits a 200 Hz tone. (vsound = 340 m/s)

  • For a person is standing directly in front of the speaker, what range of frequencies does he/she hear?

    Emech=200 J = ½ mvmax2 = ½ kA2  vmax=10 m/s

    Now use expression for Doppler shift where

    vsource= + 10 m/s and – 10 m/s


An example25 l.jpg
An example

  • A small speaker is placed in front of a block of mass 4 kg. The mass is attached to a Hooke’s Law spring with spring constant 100 N/m. The mass and speaker have a mechanical energy of 200 J and are undergoing one dimensional simple harmonic motion. The speaker emits a 200 Hz tone. (vsound = 340 m/s)

  • The closest the speaker gets to the person is 1.0 m. By how much does the sound intensity vary in terms of the ratio of the loudest to the softest sounds?

    Emech=200 J = ½ mvmax2 = ½ kA2  A = 2.0 m

    Distance varies from 1.0 m to 1.0+2A or 5 meters where

    P is the power emitted

    Ratio  Iloud/Isoft= (P/4p rloud2)/(P/4p rsoft2) = 52/12 = 25


An example problem l.jpg
An example problem

  • In musical instruments the sound is based on the number and relative strengths of the harmonics including the fundamental frequency of the note. Figure 1a depicts the first three harmonics of a note. The sum of the first two harmonics is shown in Fig. 1b, and the sum of the first 3 harmonics is shown in Fig. 1c.

    Which of the waves shown has the shortest period?

  • 1st Harmonic

  • 2nd Harmonic

  • 3rd Harmonic

  • Figure 1c

    At the 2nd position(1st is at t=0) where the three curves intersect in Fig. 1a, the curves are all:

  • in phase

  • out of phase

  • at zero displacement

  • at maximum displacement


An example problem27 l.jpg
An example problem

The frequency of the waveform shown in Fig. 1c is

a. the same as that of the fundamental

b. the same as that of the 2nd harmonic

c. the same as that of the 3rd harmonic

d. sum of the periods of the 1st, 2nd & 3rd harmonics

Which of the following graphs most accurately reflects the relative amplitudes of the harmonics shown in Fig. 1?










Chapter 6 l.jpg
Chapter 6

Chapter 7



Chapter 7 newton s 3 rd law chapter 8 l.jpg
Chapter 7 (Newton’s 3rd Law) & Chapter 8


Chapter 8 l.jpg

Chapter 9

Chapter 8








Chapter 12 l.jpg
Chapter 12

and Center of Mass






Hooke s law springs and a restoring force l.jpg
Hooke’s Law Springs and a Restoring Force

  • Key fact: w = (k / m)½ is general result where k reflects a

    constant of the linear restoring force and m is the inertial response

    (e.g., the “physical pendulum” where w = (k / I)½


Simple harmonic motion l.jpg
Simple Harmonic Motion

Maximum potential energy

Maximum kinetic energy


Resonance and damping l.jpg
Resonance and damping

  • Energy transfer is optimal when the driving force varies at the resonant frequency.

  • Types of motion

    • Undamped

    • Underdamped

    • Critically damped

    • Overdamped




Response to forces l.jpg
Response to forces

States of Matter and Phase Diagrams



Pv diagrams l.jpg
pV diagrams

Thermodynamics


Work pressure volume heat l.jpg

T can change!

Work, Pressure, Volume, Heat
















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Lecture 30

  • Assignment

    • HW12, Due Friday, May 8th

      I hope everyone does well on their finals!

      Have a great summer!


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