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Deotirth Sahu Director
Presentation Skills “The mind is a wonderful thing……… It starts working the moment you are born, and never stops ………. Until you get up to speak in public!!”
Presentation: Definition Something presented : as a : a symbol or image that represents something b : something offered or given c: an immediate object of perception, cognition, or memory
What is Communication? • Nonverbal Communication -body language -eye contact
Importance of Communication • Class Presentations • Field Research • Business Communications • Public Speaking
Fear of Public Speaking • Population • No.1 fear=Public Speaking • Fear No.2=Death • Stage fright -In spotlight -unprepared -inexperienced
Effective Communication • Preparation • Practice • Presence
Effective Communication • Preparation • research -non-research • format -speak on what you know -Notes- outline main points -note cards vs. full sized paper
MakingNotes • Use Cards - tie/number • Use headings/subheadings • Bullet points • Colour code/shorthand • Underline/indent • Write out first/last sentence in full • Memorise introduction • Rehearse • Use large visible printing
Sample Speech Outline I. Introduction • Thesis II. Body • support arguments III. Conclusion • review
Effective Communication • Practice - practice makes perfect - revision - get time right
Thorough preparation Plenty of practice Preparation & Practice
Effective Communication • Presence -nervousness- fright is common -Body language -voice tone -gestures -eye contact -positive attitude
Appearance • Confident ? • Warmth ? • Stance ? • Mannerisms ? • Eye contact ?
Body Language • Dress • Posture • Facial Expression • Voice • Movement • Gesture • Eye Contact
Mumbling • Voice drop Volume • Too high • Too low • Monotonous Pitch • Hesitancy • Gabbling Speed Voice
Voice Voice Control • Pause and pace • use pause to add emphasis and drama • pace should be slower than normal, but vary according to mood • Emphasis • say adjectives as they sound • Volume • louder than normal • larger audiences, more modulation required
Movement Movement - why does it improve the effectiveness of your delivery? • Relaxes the speaker and the audience • Gains attention • Involves the audience • Improves emphasis and eye contact
Movement Movement - it is crucial to your delivery that you choreograph it as every part of the room has a different relationship with the speaker - examples….. • Start your presentation close to the audience • 1st slide/ overhead - stand still • Move to the screen to emphasise side/ overhead • Change energy level to match/ control mood • Controlled movement • stop talking - stop eye contact • start talking/ start eye contact
Gestures Gestures - why use them? • Emphasise a point • Involve the audience • Visual expression • Animation • Demonstrates comfort How much to use? • depends on the audience size and makeup • A little for conservative audiences • A lot for large, dynamic audiences
Eye Contact Eye contact - communicates the following • Honesty • Trust • Confidence • Individualism • Interest • Sincerity • Credibility • Direct relationship
Eye Contact EYE CONTACT STRATEGIES Less than the other = Humility Same as the other = We are the same Constructive = Builds relationship (same then increasing) More than the other = Dominate other/ strength of conviction
Eye Contact Eye Contact - Directing It • Decision maker • receives most eye contact - 60% • share the remainder equally • Key influencer • share the majority of eye contact • By role • allocate by job function/ status • Everyone is equal • proportion eye contact equally
Things You Shouldn’t Do • Read directly from notes • Read directly from screen • Turn back on audience • Slouch, hands in pockets • No um, ah, you know’s • No nervous gestures • Talk too fast, • Talk too quietly
Things You Should Do • Eye contact • Can glance at notes • Appropriate gestures • Rhetorical questions to involve audience
Controlling Nerves • Dry mouth: bite side of the tongue, sip water • Too much saliva: breath through mouth • Tight throat: yawn with your mouth closed • Short of breath: apply pressure on lower abdomen • Butterflies: tense & relax muscles of abdomen • Drying Up: look at your note, repeat what you have just said • Gestures • Practice
Ten Successful Tips Control the “Butterflies” • Know the room- become familiar with the place of presentation • Know the audience- greet or chat with the audience before hand. It’s easier to speak to friends than to strangers • Know your material-increased nervousness is due to un-preparedness
Control the “Butterflies” • Relaxation- relax entire body by stretching and breathing so as to ease the tension • Visualize giving your speech-Visualize yourself giving your speech from start to finish. By visualizing yourself successful, you will be successful
Control the “Butterflies” • People want you to succeed-the audience is there to see you succeed not to fail • Don’t apologize-by mentioning your nervousness or apologizing, you’ll only be calling the audience’s attention to mistakes
Control the “Butterflies” • Concentrate on your message-not the medium. Focus on the message you are trying to convey and not on your anxieties • Turn nervousness into positive energy-nervousness increases adrenaline, transform it into vitality and enthusiasm
Control the “Butterflies” • Gain experience-experience builds confidence, which is key to effective public speaking
Presentation Skills “The key to effective presentations is to manage the relationship between yourself and the audience so that a good rapport is developed with them”
Presentation Skills • Short sharp paragraphs • Simple words • Repeat key phrases for effect • Repeat key phrases for effect • Avoid catch phrases • Humour • Anecdotes: real-life examples • Rhetorical questions: don’t require answers
YOU • Do not use the media to hide you • The audience came to see you • The media should enhance the presentation, not BE the presentation • If all you are going to do is read from the slides or overheads, then just send them the slides • Remember, only you can prevent “Death by PowerPoint”
Questions?? • End your presentation with a simple question slide to: • Invite your audience to ask questions • Provide a visual aid during question period • Avoid ending a presentation abruptly
Use of Questions Questioning - Effectively Used Achieves.. • Engages audience attention • Establishes better 2 way communication • Obtains required information • Checks for understanding • Checks for agreement How to Prepare Questions …… • Prepare key questions ahead of time • Plan the timing of questions • Be alert to situations that require unplanned questions ?
Initiate A Discussion ASK QUESTIONS • Open ended - to find out information • Closed - to gain commitment • Redirected - to involve group • Rhetorical - to control group • Leading - to give alternative choice
Tips For Enhancing Discussion • Switch off the overhead or light projector • Turn flipcharts to a blank page • Erase any unwanted writing from the blackboard or whiteboard • Show any objects referred to and then cover them up
Participants Four Types: • Dr Quiet • Dr Disagreeable • Dr Side Conversation • Dr Talkative
Keep Control - Tactics • Side Conversations • Quiet/Shy • Talkative • Disagreeable WHY?
Keep Control - Tactics SIDE CONVERSATION • Ask to “share” their idea • Restate a point & ask for their opinion • Check if there is a problem • “Should we include your point in the discussion?” BE DIPLOMATIC & ASSERTIVE
Keep Control - Tactics QUIET/SHY PARTICIPANT • Simple questions • Eye contact • Recognise & encourage any contributions • Ask a question & invite everyone's opinion in turn
Keep Control - Tactics TALKATIVE • Remind everyone of time limits • Summarise point & ask for comments from group • Address questions to other participants • Refocus on objectives/agenda
Keep Control - Tactics DISAGREEABLE • Paraphrase comments, and recap their position in objective terms • Find merit in one of their remarks • Respond to their comment, not the attack • Throw their opinion out to the group • Answer their questions simply and factually
Scientific Presentation 1) Prepare your material carefully and logically. Tell a story. The story should have four parts: (a) Introduction (b) Method (c) Results (d) Conclusion/Summary. "Tell'em what you are going to tell'em. Tell'em. Then tell'em what you told'em."
Scientific Presentation 2) Practice your talk 3) Don't put in too much material 4) Avoid equations 5) Have only a few conclusion points
Scientific Presentation 6) Talk to the audience not to the screen 7) Avoid making distracting sounds like “ uuuhhh” and “mmm” 8) Polish your graphics 9) Use humor if possible, but don’t go overboard 10) Check your viewgraphs before you give the talk 11) Switch off your cell phones if possible.