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www.andyhargreaves.com. High Performance. The Norwegian Way. Agenda. Norway & Your Way: 4 ways of change The 3 I’s of change: improvement, innovation & inspiration High performance schools, systems & sectors Fusion Leadership. OECD (2010), PISA 2009 Results: Executive Summary.

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High performance

High Performance

The Norwegian Way


Norway & Your Way: 4 ways of change

The 3I’s of change: improvement, innovation & inspiration

High performance schools, systems & sectors

Fusion Leadership

OECD (2010), PISA 2009 Results: Executive Summary


Standardized Teaching and Learning;

Focus on Literacy and Numeracy;

Teaching for Predetermined Results;

Renting Market-oriented Reform Ideas;

Test-Based Accountability;


Sahlberg, 2011

The Third Way



Goals Performance Targets

Public engagement

Lateral learning

Integrated services

Peer pressure and support

Resources Materials Training



Page 11

National Vision


Steering and





Public Professional

Engagement Involvement

The Fourth Way

Third Way to Fourth Way Purposes


Detailed Deliverology

Bureaucracy, markets and professionalism

Competitive standards

Parent choice

Community service delivery

Customized learning

Students as targets

Public confidence


Steering and development

Professionalism and democracy

Inspiring and inclusive vision

Public engagement

Community Development

Mindful teaching and learning

Student Voice

Active trust

Third Way to Fourth Way Professionalism


Performance-driven quality

Bought-off unions

Data-driven teams



Mission and conditions-driven quality

Unions as change partners

Evidence-informed communities


Third Way to Fourth Way Systems


Accountability first

Testing census

Imposed targets

Individual leadership development

Dispersed networks


Responsibility first

Testing by samples

Shared targets

Systemic and sustainable leadership

Area-based collaboration


  • Timing: earlier or later, in shorter or longer periods

  • Pacing: acceleration and catch-up

  • Settings: within and beyond school

  • Styles: from instruction to inquiry-led

  • Support: people beyond the teaching staff

  • Aims: capability-based

  • Technology: computers, video, and virtual learning

Charles Leadbeater, What’s Next? 21 Ideas for

21st Century Learning (2008)

Beyond expectations

Beyond Expectations

Exploring organizations in education, business, and sport that perform beyond expectations (PBE)

An international research project conducted jointly by Boston College & Institute of Education, University of London

Finnish improvement qualities
Finnish Improvement Qualities

  • Clear societal vision

  • Strong public investment

  • High-quality, high-status teachers

  • Steering by the state

  • Local curriculum development

  • Trust, cooperation, and responsibility

  • Improvement through uplift

  • Leaders who teach

  • No initiative-itis

Alberta improvement and innovation
Alberta Improvement and Innovation

  • Innovation and improvement

  • Strong public investment

  • High-quality, high-status teachers

  • Testing without System Targets

  • Local curriculum innovation

  • Collective system responsibility

  • Leadership stability

  • Culture of inquiry and risk

Singapore improvement and innovation
Singapore Improvement and Innovation

  • Innovation and improvement

  • Strong public investment

  • High-quality, high-status teachers

  • Testing without System Targets

  • Local curriculum innovation

  • Collective system responsibility

  • Leadership stability

  • Culture of inquiry and risk

  • Intensive communication

  • Uniqueness of Culture

  • Towering Successes

  • Vision, justice and urgency

  • Shared and ambitious targets

  • Higher quality teachers

  • Strong local partnerships

  • Knowing your people: presence in schools

  • Schools work together

  • Community development

Research questions
Research Questions

What makes organizations of different types successful and sustainable, far beyond expectations?

How does sustainability in leadership and change manifest itself in education, compared to other sectors?

What are the implications for school leaders?

Pbe criteria
PBE Criteria

  • Better than you did

  • Better than your peers

  • Better than you’d expect

F1 the fantastic dream
F1: The Fantastic Dream

Organizations that perform beyond expectations aspire to and articulate an improbable, collectively held fantasy or dream that is bolder and more challenging than a plan or even a vision. Martin Luther King had a dream, not a strategic plan - still less a set of key performance indicators.

F1 the fantastic dream1

F1: The Fantastic Dream

The shared vision is about having ambition and nurturing the aspirations of our young people. Although the levels of deprivation might be high, that’s no excuse for low attainment

Elected Member of Tower Hamlets

Ernest Bader’s vision was that we shouldn’t be damaging the world. We should be adding value to the world in everything we do, the products we make, the money we make. So the Commonwealth is there to manage social development and charitable giving.

Managing Director, Scott Bader Commonwealth

F2 the fear
F2: The Fear

The experience of success is often heightened by the emotional memory of a previous failure, or the fear of one that lays in wait. Organizations that perform above expectations often confront failure, humiliation, ridicule and even extinction in a way that galvanizes their commitment to change. An improbable dream begets an apparently impossible challenge.

F2 the fear1

F2: The Fear

I, like many others, did not like the concept of buying footwear over the Internet, but the more I learned about it and felt I had an idea on how we could make it very scalable by creating this virtual model where we teamed up directly with the manufacturers, the more I liked it.

Scott Savitz, CEO, Shoebuy.com

F3 the fight
F3: The Fight

The impossible dream and improbable challenge of surmounting failure or avoiding extinction produce a response of fight to overcome or avert obstacles, instead of flight to avoid them.

F3 the fight1

F3: The Fight

There was almost a literal fight for the company. The stories about Green grabbing Rose hit the headlines. Some called it a fight. No blows were exchanged but it was a real fight; a battle of wills.

Senior manager, Marks and Spencer

He just advised me to get back in and sort it out, which I did!

Graeme Hollinshead, former Head, Grange Secondary School

F4 counterflow
F4: CounterFlow

PBE leaders of organizations that perform expectations are prepared to run against the mainstream, and to move ahead not by going with the flow but against or around it. These leaders are courageous, creative and counterintuitive.

F5 flair flow flexibility
F5: Flair, Flow & Flexibility

It is not just teams and teamwork that keep these organizations aloft; it is the vibrant nature of the teamwork itself. Organizations that perform beyond expectations have cultures of creativity and risk-taking. They allow and encourage workers to have freedom and flexibility to innovate and play.

F6 fast and fair tracking
F6: Fast and fair tracking

Organizations that perform above expectations mark, monitor and manage their progress towards success. They use indicators and targets of progress and performance that are personally meaningful, publicly shared and demonstrably fair measures of what leaders and followers are trying to achieve.

F7 feasible growth
F7: Feasible growth

Beyond the swift actions necessary to counter any initial crisis, organizations that perform beyond expectations do not try to expand as quickly as possible and take off too fast. They are built on sustainable growth.

F8 friendly rivalry
F8: Friendly rivalry

Collaboration and competition are often seen as opposites. Leaders that perform beyond expectations go beyond these ideological oppositions and creatively combine collaboration with competition.

So Remember

F1: The Fantastic Dream

F2: The Fear

F3: The Fight

F4: CounterFlow

F5: Flair, Flow & Flexibility

F6: Fast & Fair Tracking

F7: Feasible Growth

F8: Friendly Rivalry

Five fallacies of leadership change

1: The Fallacy of Speed

2: The Fallacy of Replacement

3: The Fallacy of Numbers

4: The Fallacy of Prescription

5: The Fallacy of Competition

Five Fallacies of Leadership & Change

1 the fallacy of speed
1: The Fallacy of Speed

In business, most efforts at fast turnaround fail.

Turnarounds in sport typically take 3-7 years.

PBE organizations largely enjoy high rates of staff retention - by choice rather than default.

PBEs coherently connect quick wins that build confidence and enable survival to longer-term improvement goals.

2 the fallacy of replacement
2: The Fallacy of Replacement

In sport, there are negative associations between turnaround and turnover rates in leadership.

Turnaround strategies for schools that make wholesale replacements of leaders and key staff emulate strategies in business and sport that most commonly fail.

Yet leadership regimes should not endure endlessly.

Usually, the best formula is internally grown or returning prodigal leadership, combined with imported leadership from outside.

3 the fallacy of numbers
3: The Fallacy of Numbers

Victories/defeats and profits/losses are the ultimate mark of success in sport and business.

PBE organisations also collect data beyond the bottom line as a foundation for bottom line and high watermark success.

Measures are meaningful and used within relationships of personal consideration, knowledge and even inspiration between leaders and led.

Most measurement in public education diverges disconcertingly from that of PBE organisations

4 the fallacy of prescription
4: The Fallacy of Prescription

PBE organisations are not standardised. They promote flexibility, creativity, innovation, risk and discretionary judgement - provided this fits the dream, doesn’t undermine the team and still gets results.

People are not locked into scripted roles. They play in multiple roles and positions.

Mediocre sporting, business and educational practice is defined by standardisation and prescription.

5 the fallacy of competition
5: The Fallacy of Competition

Even within competitive market systems, commitment to collaboration and mutual assistance produces better results.

On-field competition combined with off-field collaboration produces friendly rivalry that increases performance and results.

PBE organisations practice co-opetition out of moral commitment as well as strategic opportunity, which positively impacts performance and increases social value.

Facing the fallacies
Facing the Fallacies

These fallacies of leadership, turnaround, standardisation, competition and results have led to transplantations into education of principles and practices from business and sport that do not reflect how the higher performers in those sectors actually operate.

Fusion leadership
Fusion leadership

Leading an organization beyond expectations necessitates a blend of leadership styles or approaches that are sometimes thought of as polar opposites: charismatic and diffuse; autocratic and shared; top down and distributed - defying the professed dichotomies that often define the field.

Fusion leadership1
Fusion leadership

Of inner commitments and capabilities

Of team and cultural differences

Of leadership & improvement over time

Fusion leadership2
Fusion leadership