Texture measurement
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Texture Measurement . Principles. Which test to use?. Many food texture measurement techniques are available Many are empirical. They are not based on a theoretical approach; rather, they have been tested and seem to correlate with a useful property. Classifications.

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Which test to use
Which test to use?

  • Many food texture measurement techniques are available

  • Many are empirical. They are not based on a theoretical approach; rather, they have been tested and seem to correlate with a useful property


Classifications
Classifications

  • Many food systems and texture measurements exist

  • Different classification schemes have been proposed


1 type of commodity tested
1. Type of Commodity Tested

  • Cereal, meat, fish, poultry, vegetables, fruit, dairy, beverages, juices, nuts, legumes, oilseeds, etc

  • Different industries have tended to develop their own unique methods for testing products


2 food type matz 1962

Liquids

Gels

Fibrous foods

Turgid cell clusters

Unctuous foods

Friable structures

Glassy foods

Gas-filled vesicles

2. Food Type (Matz, 1962)


Food type amerine 1965
Food Type: (Amerine, 1965)

  • Liquids

  • Fruits and vegetables

  • Meats

  • Other foods


Food type sone 1972
Food Type: (Sone, 1972)

  • Liquid foods

  • Gel-like foods

  • Fibriform foods

  • Cellular-form foods

  • Edible oils and fats

  • Powdered foods



Objective tests
OBJECTIVE TESTS

  • Well-defined, repeatable, physical interpretations

  • May or may not correlate with sensor texture

    • Tests at small deformations

    • Mastication involves combinations of compression, shearing, tension

    • Chewing involves transient temperatures

    • Mastication introduces saliva and enzymes

    • Sensory texture evaluation may involve a combination of sensory data


Texture measurement

  • However, perceived texture properties are rooted in objective properties of food

  • A thin beverage will have a small Newtonian viscosity

  • A viscoelastic solid with high ductility may be perceived as chewy

  • Objective tests may also provide information about molecular structure and effects of processing


Fundamental tests
Fundamental Tests objective properties of food

  • Measure specific rheological properties

    Shear modulus Viscosity

    Poisson’s ratio Storage modulus

    Complex viscosity Loss modulus

    Shear rate dependency

    Creep Stress relaxation

  • As measured by viscometry, DMA, force/distance curves


Empirical tests
Empirical Tests objective properties of food

  • Measure properties that are hard to define, but correlate with sensory, quality, or processing parameters

  • Advantages

    • Correlate with texture parameter

    • Quick and easy

    • Inexpensive

  • Disadvantages

    • Poor defintion of property

    • Limited standards

    • Limited to particular commodities


Imitative tests
Imitative Tests objective properties of food

  • Mimic conditions uner which food is used

    • Texturometer, TPA simulate chewing

    • Farinograph imitates working of bread dough


Objective tests further breakdown
Objective Tests:Further Breakdown objective properties of food

  • Which variables are measured

    • Force

    • Distance

    • Time

    • Energy

    • Ratios of these