ESA Missions and Related Activities in the ILWS Framework Hermann J. Opgenoorth Solar System Missions Division Research and Science Support Department ESA - ESTEC
Ulysses Exploring the Heliosphere in 4 Dimensions
Ulysses Milestones • Launch: 6 Oct 1990 by space shuttle Discovery • Polar Passes: • 1994 (south) / 1995 (north) • 2000 (south) / 2001 (north) • 2006/7 (south) / 2007/8 (north) • End of Prime Mission: 30 Sep 1995 • ESA Extensions of Scientific Operations: • Jun 1993 SPC: 1 Oct 1995 – 31 Dec 2001 (6.2 yrs) • Jun 2000 SPC: 1 Jan 2002 – 30 Sep 2004 (2.75 yrs) • Feb 2004 SPC: 1 Oct 2004 – 31 Mar 2008 (3.5 yrs) • Nov 2007 SPC: 1 Apr 2008 – early 2009 (on contingency funds to support Great Observatory) • On 15 Jan 2008 loss of X-band transmitter - continued operation on S-Band • …with slowly freezing hydrazine because of absent X-band transmitter heat output. • June 12, 2008: END-OF-MISSIONPress Event in Paris ESA-HQ - Orbit in Peace - Ulysses !!!
Fast wind from the N polar coronal hole velocity perihelion density temperature Ulysses: still measuring the polar solar wind Fast wind from the S polar coronal hole X-band Anomaly (15 Jan 2008) [ Max. N latitude (80°) reached on 14 Jan 2008 ]
Current mission extension until 12/2009 Joint programs with HINODE and STEREO 08/2008: Launch of “next-generation SOHO”: SDO 2009: cross-calibration of MDI/EIT with SDO > 2010: reduced automated mission (Bonus/Bogart mission) (coronagraphs, TSI,…) Recent Senior review outcome: continued operation to 2013 (See NASA presentation) ESA decision pending - presentation to Nov 2008 SPC (in competition) SOHO’s Future
Scientific regions visited by Cluster: dayside February magnetosheath bow shock magnetopause cusp lobe plasma sheet solar wind
Scientific regions visited by Cluster: nightside September magnetosheath bow shock magnetopause cusp lobe plasma sheet solar wind
Cluster milestones • Cluster I launched by Ariane 5 (failure): 4 June 1996 • Cluster II first Launch: 16 July 2000 by Soyuz Fregat (first ESA spacecraft from Baikonour) • Second launch: 10 August 2000 by Soyuz Fregat • End of Prime Mission: 1 February 2003 • First extension: 1 Feb. 2003 - 31 Dec. 2005 + full orbit coverage • Cluster active archive startup: Feb 2003 • 2nd extension: 1 Jan. 2006 - 31 Dec. 2009 Very successful mid-term review in late 2007 • Because of raised perigee no reentry until 2013 • New 4 year extension proposal (including coll. with Themis and Swarm) to be submitted to Nov 2008 SPC (decision in competition) 2001 2008-2009 2010-2013 decreased inclination
Cluster observed long electron diffusion region near magnetic reconnection Simulation of magnetic reconnection [Shay et al., 2007]
Cluster observations in electron diffusion region [Phan et al., Phys. Rev. Let., 2007] Observations Simulations B-field Velocity Density Very good agreement between observations and simulations
Solar Wind speed [Lavraud et al., Geophys. Res. Lett, 2007] CME accelerate plasma above 1000 km/s near magnetosphere SOHO CME Cluster high speed flows and simulations
C1,C2,C3 C3,C4 C3 C1 C4 C2 Separation distances changed every 6 months d “Multiscale” cusp tail 50km! April-May 2008: 45 deg. tilt of C3 close to C4 - first real 3-d field and wave measurements !
ESA Support to Hinode • ESA, in sub-contractual collaboration with the Norwegian Space Centre, provides • one additional downlink contact to Hinode for each of the 15 orbits per day • This support considerably improves the overall scientific data return and the cadence of • observations from the Hinode mission • The European scientific community is • catered with processed data through • a dedicated Hinode data centre • at the University of Oslo • MoU with JAXA about partnership • ESA commitment maintained after X-band • Failure and activities presently shifted to • increased support via S-band stations, also • utilising Norwegian assets in Antarctica. Hinode
ILWSFuture Missions - SWARM • ESA - EOP Living Planet 3-satellite mission to study core dynamics and geodynamo processes, crustal magnetisation, and ocean circulation from low Earth orbit. • Ionosphere-magnetosphere current systems and magnetic forcing of the upper atmosphere need to be derived and taken care of - “one man’s noise is another man’s data” • Selected by Earth Obs. Program Board for Launch in 2009 (now late 2010) • Electric Field Instrument (Ion Drift Meter) provided by CSA in collaboration with ESA Science Programme • Plan to use new Cluster extension for collaboration in ionosphere / magnetosphere interaction studies during 2011-2012 • Plan to use extensive ground-based network for calibration and science
PROBA - 2 ESA Technology Demonstrator Project for On-Board Autonomy within ESA D/TEC Successor of PROBA1 (launched in 2001, dedicated to Earth observation) ESA mission with Belgium as lead funder (through GSTP) Prime contractor: Verhaert Design & Devl. (Belgium) Schedule: development 2003-2006 and expected launch in 2009 into an LEO 06-18 Sun-synchronous orbit Following a proposal to the ESA NLM programme the Proba-2 science operation has been «adopted« for a 2 year mission duration by the May 2006 SPC meeting - at a cost of 2.8 Meuro for ESA. Implementation of operation support presently ongoing
KuaFu - in detailed study phase within CNSA, CMA, and PKUSolar Storm, Aurora and Space Weather Exploration Clear ESA and European memberstate interest to participate in this mission - but discussion presently on hold, awaiting clarity about Solar Orbiter payload selection Launch Date: 2012
Bepi Colombo: two satellites to Mercury’s magnetosphere
Mission/Programmatic Status at present: Recent mass crisis (>500 kg) makes Soyuz launcher no longer feasible Due to heat load new heavier structure must be developed, now using Ariane 5 launcher with expected date of 2014 Expected cost increase : order of 180 M€ Vote in SPC June 2008 not to cancel the mission following SPRT recommendation Other cost increases in H/P, Gaia, LPF require reassessment of CV programme Renewed discussion about “overheated” Science Programme at next SPC (Nov 08) … stay tuned Bepi Colombo: two satellites to Mercury’s magnetosphere
Solar Orbiter Next major Solar and Heliospheric mission ESA ILWS flagship 2015 - 2025 Now with the Inner Heliospheric Sentinels
4 Inner Heliospheric Spacecraft Orbits • Joint Solar Orbiter / Sentinels (“SOS”) • Science and Technology Definition • Team (JSTDT) installed by ESA • and NASA evaluated synergistic • science opportunities such a joint • mission and defined an updated joint • mission definition. • Obvious science opportunities are • the remote sensing capabilities of • Solar Orbiter added to the in situ • Sentinels and • a multi-spacecraft in-situ heliospheric • connectivity to any such observations • on the Sun added to the Solar orbiter • mission • increased overall data return • JSTDT report published in Autumn 2007
Solar Orbiter Mission Status Nov SPC meeting: Solar Orbiter confirmed in Cosmic Vision at cost cap of 300 Meuro (assumption of NASA launcher) Oct 2007: Parallel AO for Solar Orbiter (ESA) and FOSO - SMEX (NASA) Jan/Febr 2008: Payload Proposals received by ESA and NASA April/May 2008: payload categorisation NASA and selection ESA 9 June 2008: payload selection coordination meeting ESA/NASA (announcement around time of next ESA NASA Bilateral, 16 July 08) Status within ESA at present: - Crisis of Bepi Colombo may spill over to SO in terms of cost and time schedule - Solar Orbiter may enter timeframe of new Cosmic Vision - At present activities continued with launch option 2015, but newly initiated cost and schedule reassessment.
COSMIC VISION 2015-2025 Overwhelming response to Cosmic Vision call ca 90 proposals (~50 for SS) In Solar System area down-selection to 2 M class and 2 L class missions M - Class Missions (300 M€ envelope): Marco Polo - sample return mission to asteroid Cross Scale - true multi-scale mission for general space plasma physics considerable interest for ILWS and international collaboration (see next slides) L - Class Missions (650 M€ envelope): to be down-selected to only 1 in late 2009 Laplace - Jovian system and Tandem - Kronian system missions
In Astronomy area similar down-selection to M-missions: Plato (extra-solar planet finder), Euclid (dark energy) and Spica (Infrared Space telescope with JAXA) and L-Mission: Xeus (X-ray observatory) Euclid-400-51b After parallel studies of all competitors in 2009/10 final down-selection to one M- and one L-mission (possibly two M-missions with larger envelope) Competetive L-mission from present programme
Cross-Scale – key concepts • Multiple spacecraft clusters /constellations on a hierarchy of scales • Electron group • Electron instruments • 3 axis electric and magnetic fields • Ion group • Fast ion instruments • Magnetic field instruments • Fluid group • Bulk plasma and field instruments • Energetic particles • Note • Need different instrumentation at each scale • Other agencies could provide one or more scales
Mission requirements • Key Concepts • Behaviour ≠ Behaviour of • Simultaneous multi-scale • Near-Earth: unique in situ plasma laboratory • Mission Design • ElectronScale: Comprehensive payload • Ion Scale: Targeted payload • Fluid Scale: Context payload • Focus: coupling between scales • Extensive payload at electron scale: JAXA SCOPE
Alternative configurations Three tetrahedra Shared corner
Orbit/Launch • Near-Earth space contains • Shocks • Reconnection • Turbulence • Orbit: 1.4x25 Re or 10x25 Re (14 deg. inclination) • Launch up to 10 s/c via dispenser, • presently studying 5 and 7 s/c options. • Separate SCOPE launch for 2 JAXA + 3rd party • Extendable by other agencies
Planning • Selected for further study in October 2007 • Science Study Team composition (Nov 2007) • Concurrent Design Facility study (Dec 2007) • Invitation to tender to Industry (Mar 2008) • Selection of 2 parallel studies (May/June 2008) • Industrial Study for 1 year • Selection of one M and one L or alternatively two M missions in late 2009
Other ESA News Science Directorate (D/Sci) will cease to exist on 15 June 2008 New Directorate of Science and Robotic Exploration (D/SRE) Director remains the same: D. Southwood re-appointed 1+2 yrs to April 2011 Main effect initially: ExoMARS will fall in D/SRE responsibility area RSSD split into Sci-S (Scientific part, mainly in ESTEC, NL) and Sci-O (Operational part, mainly in ESAC, Spain) (VN’s out June 11, 2008) “Nationally Led Missions” concept will continue, biennial calls for proposals SOLAR Payload Suite has started to operate on ISS Columbus module New ESA Council proposal for Space Situation Awareness Programme (incl. SW) to Conf. of Ministers in Nov. 2008 (see A. Glover, End-User TG) Proba-3 continues within ESA Technology Directorate (D/TEC): Formation Flying Demonstrator with possibly a coronagraph on main spacecraft and separate occulter on second spacecraft.