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Amorites. Hammurabi. Successful general Defeated Sumerians and Akkad around 1760 B.C.E Helped his people conquer Mesopotamia A famous Babylonian Monarch Created one of the first empires by uniting Mesopotamia under one ruler. Hammurabi. Improved the irrigation process of his empire

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hammurabi
Hammurabi
  • Successful general
  • Defeated Sumerians and Akkad around 1760 B.C.E
  • Helped his people conquer Mesopotamia
  • A famous Babylonian Monarch
  • Created one of the first empires by uniting Mesopotamia under one ruler
hammurabi1
Hammurabi
  • Improved the irrigation process of his empire
  • Strongly encouraged astronomy, mathematics, and literature
the code of hammurabi
The Code of Hammurabi
  • Was created by Hammurabi
  • First known code of laws in ancient civilizations
  • Used to keep order in the empire
  • Contained the concepts of “an eye for an eye” or “lex talionis”
  • Established rules for common issues

Code of Hammurabi

the code of hammurabi1
The Code of Hammurabi
  • Created standards for behavior
  • Created punishments
  • They were posted in the cities’ temple
  • Written in cuneiform
  • Hammurabi
the code of hammurabi2
The Code of Hammurabi
  • 282 total laws
  • Written around 1786 B.C.E
  • Carved in forty-nine columns of stone tablets called stele
the code of hammurabi3
The Code of Hammurabi
  • Addressed topics such as civil, commercial, family, and criminal laws
  • Some laws showed favoring towards higher social classes
      • “If a man strikes the cheek of a freeman who is superior in rank to himself, he shall be beaten with 60 stripes with a whip of ox-hide in the assembly”
impact of ideas
Impact of Ideas
  • Many later documents used ideas from the Code of Hammurabi
  • When the Kassites conquered Babylon and controlled Mesopotamia they still used Hammurabi’s Code
  • Established the authority of the government for Babylon and other societies
impact of ideas1
Impact of Ideas
  • Some historians suggest that many aspects of the Bible include borrowed ideas from Hammurabi’s Code
      • The 10 Commandments
      • Levitical Law contains the concept of an eye for an eye
      • The laws of Melchizedek (the land that the Bible said God told Abraham to live on)
culture
Culture
  • Spoke language related to Hebrew
  • Wrote on clay tablets
      • Cuneiform writing
culture1
Culture
  • Elaborate palaces and temple buildings
      • Art and architecture were influenced by other Mesopotamian cultures
culture2
Culture
  • Worshiped Sumerian gods
  • Told Sumerian myths and tales
  • Created a new god they worshipped
      • Marduk
  • The Epic of Gilgamesh was created and contributed to religion
social institutions
Social Institutions
  • Split up into 2 groups: traders and workers
  • Society of farmers, free citizens, and merchants
  • Priests served gods and cared for the welfare of his subjects.
social institutions1
Social Institutions
  • Monarchy
  • Became more powerful
  • Used power to collect taxes and make a strong army
  • Strong central government needed a set of laws to keep order(Hammurabi's Code)
social institutions2
Social Institutions
  • Instead of city-states they created one big kingdom
  • Their most famous king was Hammurabi
  • The Code of Hammurabi set up the rules for each social class.
government
Government
  • Based on Sumerian civilization
  • Relied on sun god: Marduk
  • Ruler was Hammurabi
  • Hammurabi’s Code gave empire order
economy
Economy
  • Traded with Canaan and Anatolia
      • Reflected art and agriculture
      • Traded cloth for gold
human environment interactions
Human Environment Interactions

Kingdoms

  • Division into kingdoms replaced city-states of Sumerians
  • Kings chose the land people were given and which land would be dedicated to farming
human environment interaction
Human Environment Interaction

Farmland

  • Grew wheat and barely
  • Created better irrigation systems
  • Domesticating animals
  • Creating better roads and improving wheels led to population growth
cooperation and conflict
Cooperation and Conflict
  • Sumerians fell and Mesopotamia went in a conflicted era
  • Amorites traveled into Mesopotamia, and recreated their civilization but with improvements
cooperation and conflict1
Cooperation and Conflict
  • The fall of the Amorites was called the Dark Age
  • Kassites took over and the language of the Amorites faded into the south of Mesopotamia
location
Location
  • the Amorites lived in Canaan and in the

Eastern part of the fertile crescent

http://www.jesuswalk.com/joshua/images/amorite-map.gif

social classes
Social Classes
  • 2 forms of slaves – (Wardu)
    • Debtors working for freedom
    • Prisoners of War/ women + children sold to pay a debt
  • Slaves were occasionally sold to pay labors
social classes cont
Social Classes cont.
  • 2 forms of free citizens
    • Higher (Anilu)
    • Lower (Mushkenu)
  • Military + civil services are under free citizens
  • Nobles and rulers are the final rung

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16653/16653-h/img/23.jpg

geography
Geography
  • In the Western part of Mesopotamia

now known as Arabia

  • Hot and dry climate in the summer; cold and wet in winter
  • Fertile land, major waterways to help with trade
  • Also the Mountain range Jebel Bishiri
  • Built around the Euphrates
technology inventions
Technology/ Inventions
  • Centralized government
  • A new God (Marduk)
  • Established the 1st dynasty
  • 1st written code of laws
cooperation and conflict2
Cooperation and Conflict
  • Nebuchadnezzar led a revival in 1000 BCE
  • Agum I took over Babylon after the Hittite rule
  • Samsu-ditanna was the last king
  • Traded with every city-state in the Euphrates river valley
governmental ideas
Governmental ideas
  • 1st set of written laws
  • Had one central city-state, Babylon
  • Divisions of kingdoms eliminated city- states
  • Development of personal ownership/ private property
  • Priests didn’t control the economy anymore
social institutions3
Social Institutions
  • Religion
    • Worshipped the Moon god(Sin) + Amurru
    • Amurru is possibly where they got the name Amorites
    • Believed in an after life
    • Believed their king was a god
  • Government
    • Scribes kept track of everything
    • Hereditary Monarchy
social institutions cont
Social Institutions Cont.
  • Schools (Tablet School)
    • Children began school at age 8 or 9
    • Had schools for scribes
    • Took 12 years
    • Mostly boy students
    • Senior students helped the

teacher/expert

cultural development
Cultural development
  • Bronze began to be used
  • Passed on stories orally

ex.) “Epic of Gilgamesh”

  • Looked at monarch as a god
  • Religion was part of their everyday culture
individuals
Individuals
  • Hammurabi:
    • Wrote the 1st code of laws
    • Very one gender sided
    • Created a man based society
    • Women became slaves and household objects
    • Changed laws everywhere
economics
Economics
  • Was controlled by priest
  • Changed hands with Hammurabi’s rule
  • Trade thrived in this area because:
    • Large cities
    • Their geographical location (rivers)

http://www.bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/nebuchadnezzar-inscription.jpg

impact of ideas2
Impact of Ideas
  • Freed certain people from taxes
  • Switched from independent city-states to kingdoms made up of city-states
  • Changes in the economic system
    • control shifted from religious leaders to king/government
fun facts
Fun Facts!
  • Famous for Hammurabi’s Code
  • Hittites conquered the Amorites then left, then the Kassites came and occupied the territory
  • First to inhabit Canaan + Babylonia area
  • Established first Babylonian dynasty
  • Jebel Bishiri – Syria named after the Amorites
introduction
Introduction
  • Amorites were also known as the Old Babylonians who were mountainous people and warriors
  • The Amorites ruled the empire from 1900-1600 B.C.E known as the Old Babylonian Period
  • They were a group of Semites that gained control of Mesopotamia after the fall of the last Sumerian dynasty
location1
Location
  • In the fertile crescent
  • Occupied the area west of the Euphrates River
  • Babylon was the capitol of the Amorite Empire
  • The area the Amorites occupied included the cities:
  • Mari
  • Rapiqum
  • Sippar
  • Babylon
  • Eshunna
  • Malgium
  • Nippur
  • Isir
  • Uruk
  • Larsa
  • Lagash
  • Ur
  • Eridu
location cont
Location cont.
  • Occupied modern-day Syria
  • Northern area was composed of hills and plains
  • It was fertile because of rivers flowing down from the mountains
  • Southern area had marshy areas and desolate plains
language
Language
  • Amorites used the Akkadian language as their spoken language
  • Used cuneiform for many of their documents
  • Used the Sumerian language as their religious language
religion
Religion
  • Polytheistic
  • They adopted the Sumerian religion
  • Main god was Marduk which is the only god that they imported
  • Did not care about life after death
  • Focused mainly on life itself
important individuals
Important Individuals
  • Hammurabi: the sixth ruler of Babylonia, who created the first set of written laws
  • Gilgamesh: legendary king discovers the secret of floods and defies the gods
  • Samsu-Ditana: last king of the

First Babylonian Dynasty

social classes1
Social Classes
  • Social Pyramid:
    • Noblemen
    • Commoners
    • Women
    • Slaves
  • New kings came to rule:
    • Many people were freed
    • New societies
writing
Writing
  • Hammurabi’s Code
  • The famous Venus Tablets of Ammis

aduqa

  • The Epic of Gilgamesh
    • Gilgamesh searched for immortality
    • Learned from the only man who survived a great flood created by the gods
    • Gilgamesh also conquered the demon, Huwawa, who lived in the cedar forest
    • Gilgamesh wanted Cedar Wood and encountered the Huwawa and killed it
technology
Technology
  • Adopted many of the Sumerians’ technological advancements:
    • Wheel
    • Boat/Ships
    • Metallurgy
    • Irrigation Systems
mathematics
Mathematics
  • Helped with trade and records
  • Developed multiplication and exponents
  • Tablets recovered including signs of:
    • Fractions
    • Algebra
    • Quadratic Equations
    • Cubic Equations
    • Pythagorean Theorem
arts architecture
Arts/Architecture
  • Had an abundance of mudbrick
  • Built temples supported by buttresses
  • Use of brick led to the early development of pilaster and column
  • Walls were brilliantly colored and plated with zinc or gold
  • Assyrians adopted later on
slide47
Wars
  • Always prepared for wars
  • Wars rarely occurred
  • War against Gibeon:
    • 5 kings of Amorite marched together to attack Gibeon
    • Felt threatened by Gibeon’s wealth, power, and military status
    • They attacked Gibeon
    • Gibeon survived b/c of King Joshua’s cunning plots and tactics
government1
Government
  • Established a bureaucracy: a system of government
  • Were first to have a set of laws which was Hammurabi’s Code
  • Hammurabi’s Code was written around 1792-1750 B.C.E.
effect on mesopotamia
Effect on Mesopotamia
  • Changed city-states into kingdoms
  • Men, cattle, and land ceased to belong to the gods or the temples and kings
  • Brought lasting repercussions in its political, social and economic structure
bibliography
Bibliography

www.angelfire.com/va3/violingirl/amorites.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amorite

http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/AMORITES.HTMhttp://www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch01.htm

http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/world_cultures/middle_east/amorites.aspx

http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/AMORITES.HTM

http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/bios/b1hammurabi.htm

http://www.lawbuzz.com/ourlaws/hammurabi/religion.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hammurabi

sources
Sources

“Amorites.” Amorite. Wikipedia. November 5, 2008

“Geography.” Geography. The British Museum. November 4, 2008

“Mathematics.” Babylonia. Wikipedia. November 13, 2008

“Old Babylonian Period.” Babylonia. Wikipedia. November 4, 2008

n_period>

“Technology.” Babylonia. Wikipedia. November 8, 2008

The Amorites. November 11, 2008

bibliography1
Bibliography

"Amorites." High Beam Encylopedia. 2008. 10 Nov. 2008 http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1e1-amorites.html. "Amorites." Phoencia.org. 2008. PhoenciaEnclylopedia. 9 Nov. 2008 http://phoenicia.org/amorites.html. "The Amorites, Phoenicians, and Hebrews." 10 Nov. 2008 http://www.egyptorigins.org/amorites.htm. "The Amorites." World History Center. History World International. 10 Nov. 2008 http://history-world.org/amorites.htm. "Ancient Babylonia Geography." Bible History. 10 Nov. 2008 http://www.bible-history.com/babylonia/babyloniageography.htm. "Ancient Hodgepodge." Fun Trivia. 10 Nov. 2008 http://www.funtrivia.com/en/subtopics/ancient-hodgepodge-149254.html. Hooker, Richard. "Mesopotamia." 1996. World Civilizations. 10 Nov. 2008.