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Skinner: Radical Behaviorism Bandura, Ellis, Beck Meicheanbaum

Skinner: Radical Behaviorism Bandura, Ellis, Beck Meicheanbaum

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Skinner: Radical Behaviorism Bandura, Ellis, Beck Meicheanbaum

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  1. Behavior and Cognitive Behavior Therapy Skinner: Radical Behaviorism Bandura, Ellis, Beck Meicheanbaum

  2. Skinner: Radical Behaviorism • Placed primary emphasis in the role of the environment in producing behavior • Applied learning principles to psychology • Developed theory primarily working with rats in an experimental laboratory • Books • 1948 Walden Two • 1953 Science and Human Behavior • 1971 Beyond Freedom and Dignity

  3. Behavior/Cognitive Behavior Theory • Classical Conditioning • Operant Conditioning • Social Learning Approach • Cognitive Interventios

  4. Classical Conditioning • If you pair a conditioned stimulus to a natural stimulus, after time, the conditioned stimulus produces the same response as the natural one: Learning by association Pavlov discovery (1900) • Meat (us) >> Salivation (ur) • Bell (cs)>>Meat (us) >>Salivation (ur) • Bell (cs) >> Salivation (cr) • Bell (cs) >> Extinguished response

  5. Wolpe: 1950 • Applied classical conditioning to treat anxiety by pairing stimulus that causes anxiety (taking an exam) with astate of relaxation, to break the connection between the stimulus and the anxious response Exam (us)>>>Anxiety (ur) Relaxation> Images Exam>Anxiety>Relaxation (cs) (us) (ur) (cr) Images Exam (us)>>> Relaxation(cr) Real Exam (us)>>> Relaxation(cr)

  6. Operant Conditioning • Focuses on actions that operate on the environment to produce consequence • If the environmental change brought about by the behavior is reinforcing, probabilities that the behavior will be repeated increase • If the environmental changes produce no reinforcementor apunishment, probabilities that the behavior will be repeated decrease

  7. Environmental Consequences • ReinforcementIncreases the behavior • Positive R Adds a pleasant consequence • Negative R Eliminates aversive stimulus • PunishmentDecreases the behavior • Adds an aversive consequence • Take away a positive stimulus • Lack of consequence Decreases behavior

  8. Bandura: Social Learning Approach • Psychological functions involve a reciprocal interaction between: Environment <><><> Behavior <> <> <> <> <> Cognitive Process <>

  9. Cognitive Behavior Therapy • Emphasizes cognitive processes and private events (such as client’s self-talk) as mediators of behavior change • Rational Emotive Therapy Ellis • Cognitive Therapy Beck • Cognitive Behavior Modification Meichenbaum

  10. Behavior Therapy Today 1/2 • Person is product and producer of his/her environment • Uses a systematic and structured approach to counseling • Emphasizes changing overt behaviors and solving specific problems versus gaining insight

  11. Behavior Therapy Today • Clients are expected to assume an active role in therapy • Emphasizes the assessment of effectiveness of interventions • Applied Behavioral Analyses: assessment of environmental contingencies of behaviors

  12. Applied Behavioral Analysis: Functional Assessment Model • Examine the antecedents and consequences of problem behaviors • Conduct a functional assessment using interviews and direct observations (e.g. keeping a diary) to identify the internal\external conditions contributing to the behavior of interest

  13. Applied Behavioral Analysis: Functional Assessment Model • Facilitate Behavioral Change • Behavioral treatments are devised to replace problem behavior(s) with more adaptive behavior(s) using reinforcement and extinction strategies

  14. Behaviorism: Therapy Techniques 1/3 • Systematic Desensitization • Relaxation training • Anxiety hierarchy • Aversive Counter Conditioning • Exposure Techniques • In vivo desensitization • Flooding (in vivo, imaginary) • Modeling

  15. Behaviorism: Therapy Techniques 2/3 • Assertiveness Training • Information • Examination of beliefs and self-talk • Role playing • Behavioral rehearsal

  16. Behaviorism: Therapy Techniques 3/3 • Behavioral Modification Programs • Reinforcement Token economy • Extinction Time out, loose privileges, punishment • Stimulus control Changing environmental antecedents

  17. Behaviorism: Therapy Techniques 3/3 • Self Management Programs – active coping behaviors • Identify goal • Express goal in behavioral terms • Self Monitoring- Behavioral assessment • Develop plan for change that includes Self-Reinforcements • Evaluation of action plan - results

  18. Cognitive Behavior Theory • Distressing emotions are typically the result of maladaptive thinking • Mental disorder seen as a disorder of thinking in which a client distorts reality, including: • Specific misconceptions • Unrealistic expectations • Maladaptive attributes

  19. Cognitive Behavior Theory • Therapy’ aims are to identify and change • Faulty patterns of thinking • Faulty premises and attitudes

  20. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: (REBT) Albert Ellis • Stresses thinking,judging, deciding, analyzing, and doing • Cognitions <> Emotions <>Behaviors have a reciprocal cause-and-effect relationship • Teachesthat our emotions stem mainly from our beliefs, evaluations, interpretations, and reactions to life situations

  21. RET: Human Nature • We are born with a potential for both rational and irrational thinking • We have the biological and cultural tendency to think crookedly and to needlessly disturb ourselves • We learn and invent disturbing beliefs and keep ourselves disturbed through our self-talk • We have the capacity to change our cognitive, emotive, and behavioral processes

  22. RET: The ABC Theory

  23. RET: Therapy Process • Therapy is seen as an educational process • Clients learn • To identify and dispute irrational beliefs that are maintained by self-indoctrination • To replace ineffective ways of thinking with effective and rational cognitions • To stop absolutistic thinking, blaming, and repeating false beliefs

  24. Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Therapy (CT) • Insight-focused therapy • Emphasizes changing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs

  25. Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Therapy (CT) • Theoretical Assumptions • People’s internal communications are accessible to introspection • Clients’ beliefs have highly personal meanings • These meanings can be discovered by the client rather than being taught or interpreted by the therapist

  26. Beck’s Cognitive Therapy 1/2 • Basic theory: • To understand the nature of an emotional episode or disturbance it is essential to focus on the cognitive content of an individual’s reaction to the upsetting event or stream of thoughts • Automatic thoughts: personalized notions that are triggered by particular stimuli that lead to emotional responses

  27. Beck’s Cognitive Therapy 2/2 • Goals: • To change the way clients think • Identify clients’ automatic thoughts • Reach the coreschemata and • Schema restructuring

  28. CT: Human Nature • Cognitive structures or schemas • function as implicit assumptions or premises that influence what one attends to and how one interprets events • Confirmatory bias • Selectively attend to events that confirm our own initial beliefs • Schemas and Disorders • Anxiety Threat and danger • Depression Social rejection and failure

  29. CT’s Cognitive Distortions • Arbitrary inferences • Selective abstraction • Overgeneralization • Magnification and minimization • Personalization • Labeling and mislabeling • Polarized thinking

  30. Ct’s Therapy Process • Socratic dialogue collaborative an interactive process to: • Teachclients to recognize, observe and monitor "automatic" thoughts and assumptions • Subject their automatic thoughts to reality testing • Substitute realistic and accurate interpretations for the biased cognitions

  31. Beck’s Approach to Depression: Cognitive Triad • Have a negative view of themselves and attribute setbacks to themselves w/o looking at the environment • Interpret experiences in a negative manner, screening out positives • Have a gloomy vision and projections about the future

  32. Ellis Vs. Beck • Ellis is more directional and confrontational in pointing out and refuting irrational thoughts • Beck helps clients discover their distorted patterns of thinking • Collaborative empiricism • Guided discovery • client and therapist examine and evaluate beliefs and modify and correct client’s misconceptions

  33. Meichenbaum: Cognitive Behavior Modification • Is primarily a self-instructional therapy that focuses on helping clients • become aware of their self-talk, and • acquire practical coping skills to deal with problematic situations • Process of Change • Self Observation • Starting a new internal dialogue • Learning new skills

  34. Coping Skills Program:Stress Inoculation • Teaches clients stress management techniques to be applied to present and future problems • Consists of three phases • Conceptual Phase • Skills acquisition and rehearsal • Application and follow-through

  35. Conceptual Phase • Collaborative relationship • Didactic presentation of role that cognitions and emotions play in stress • Guided discovery to identify their own self-talk and how it creates stress • Systematic observation and monitoring of maladaptive behaviors and their related self-talk

  36. Skills Acquisition and Rehearsal • Giving clients behavioral and cognitive coping techniques to apply to stressful situations • Rehearsing new self-statements • Relaxation training • Social skills training • Time management instruction • Making changes in their everyday lives

  37. Application and Follow-Through Phase • Arranging for transfer and maintenance of change from therapy to the real world • Clients practice in homework assignments of increasing complexity • Results of these assignments are carefully evaluated • Follow-up and booster sessions are scheduled in 3-, 6-, and 12 months intervals

  38. Contributions and Limitations • Focus on short-term behavioral goals • Emphasis on evaluation of therapy outcomes • Empirical evidence of positive results • May lead to symptom substitution because underneath causes are not addressed • Too much power and control from therapist • Lack of attention to relationship issues • No processing of emotions and feelings • Focus only on cognitive issues

  39. Multimodal Therapy • Comprehensive approach to behavior modification • Developed by Arnold Lazarus • Technical eclecticism • Based on social learning theory • Therapy is guided by what is best for the client

  40. Basic Concepts • Experience includes: moving, feeling, sensing, imagining, thinking, and relating to one another • Humans are the product of: genetic endowment, physical environment, and social learning history • People vary in the aspects of experience they emphasize

  41. Framework for assessment and therapy • Dimensions of human experience • B – behavior • A – affective processes • S – sensation • I – imagery • C – cognition • I – interpersonal relations • D – physiological aspects

  42. Behavior Change • Most problems arise from faulty social learning • Therapist-client relationship similar to a trainer-trainee relationship • Homework assignments to facilitate transfer of learning • Therapy starts with comprehensive assessment of BASIC ID dimensions

  43. Interventions • Behavior • Extinction, counter-conditioning, reinforcement; behavioral assessment • Affective processes • Owning and accepting feelings; catharsis • Sensation • Tension release, relaxation exercises

  44. Interventions • Imagery • Systematic desensitization; coping imagery • Cognition • Cognitive restructuring; irrational thoughts; • Interpersonal relation • Social skills, assertive training; modeling; role playing; • Physiological aspects • Referrals; addiction treatment

  45. Cognitive/Behavioral vs Psychodynamic vs Existential • Richard’s recounting of the loneliness in his childhood Therapists possible responses? • Talks at length about his loneliness; when questioned about evidence, states he is not lonely at all Possible meaning?

  46. Cognitive/Behavioral vs Psychodynamic vs Existential • Feels lonely on Saturday – call the list of friends – is this a good solution? • “Wife took everything from me” Beck – “lets check the evidence to see if it is true” – Other possible responses? • Need a woman to be happy- Beck –disputed the belief