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Respiration & Gas Exhange. Respiration. Two processes: 1. Release of energy from breakdown of food molecules. All living cells use oxygen to release energy. This process produces waste carbon dioxide. 2.The exchange of gases between the atmosphere and body’s cells.

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respiration
Respiration
  • Two processes:

1. Release of energy from breakdown of food molecules.

All living cells use oxygen to release energy.

This process produces waste carbon dioxide.

2.The exchange of gases between the atmosphere and body’s cells.

We will focus on the exchange of gases.

so what are the functions of the respiratory system
So what are the functions of the respiratory system?
  • Bring oxygen into the body
  • Remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the body
  • Clean, moisten and warm air
  • Enable speech
gas exchange supplies oxygen for cellular respiration and removes co 2

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Gas exchange supplies oxygen for cellular respiration and removes CO2
  • Gas exchange – uptake of O2 from environment and discharge of CO2
  • Mitochondria need O2 to produce more ATP, CO2 is the by-product

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP

DIFFUSION

how does oxygen get into cells
How Does Oxygen Get Into Cells?
  • O2 and CO2 enter and leave the cells

(gas exchange) by diffusion

  • Different animals have different systems
  • Some examples:

Organism:Gas exchange between:

one-celled cell membrane and outside cell

earthworm skin and capillaries

insects trachea and body cells

fish gill filaments and capillaries

mammals air sacs (alveoli) and capillaries

respiratory surfaces and gas exchange
Respiratory surfaces and gas exchange
  • Respiratory surface
    • Size of organism
    • Habitat
    • Metabolic demands
  • Unicellular organisms
    • Entire surface area for diffusion
  • Simple invertebrates
    • Sponges, cnidarians, flatworms
    • diffusion
human respiratory system
Human Respiratory System

Our own pathway, in order:

Mouth/Nasal Cavity

Pharynx

Larynx

Trachea

Bronchi

Bronchioles

Alveoli (tiny air sacs)

organs of the respiratory system
Organs of the respiratory system
  • Nose and sinuses
  • Q. List the advantages of breathing in from the nose? (page 170 )

1. Cleans dust and bacteria in the air by hair

and mucus,

2. warms and moistens the air

3. Detect harmful chemicals by sensory cells

organs of the respiratory system1

Hyoid Bone

Epiglottis

Thyrohyoid

Membrane

Thyroid

Cartilage

Cricothyroid

Muscles

Cricothyroid

Ligament

Cricothyroid

Cartilage

Trachea

Organs of the respiratory system
  • Pharynx – short tube leading to larynx
  • Epiglottis – cartilaginous flap covering opening to larynx (glottis)
  • Larynx – voicebox containing vocal cords
organs of the respiratory system2

mouth

trachea

bronchi

alveoli

Organs of the respiratory system
  • Trachea – tubes leading into lungs.
  • These branch into primary bronchi then into bronchioles
slide12

sinuses

pharynx

bronchiole

larynx

trachea

bronchial

tube

alveoli

organs of the respiratory system3

Primary

bronchus

Secondary

bronchus

Tertiary

bronchus

Bronchiole

Terminal

bronchiole

Alveoli

Organs of the respiratory system
  • Bronchioles end in sac like structures called Alveoli
  • Gas exchange occurs between the alveoli and capillaries
gas exchange
Gas Exchange
  • Capillaries surround the alveoli
  • Gases are exchanged between the thin walls of the alveoli and capillaries
how does o 2 get into the blood
How Does O2 Get Into the Blood?

A

i

r

To

heart

From

heart

A

i

r

Alveolus

(air sac)

O2

CO2

Pulmonary capillary

how does o 2 get into the blood1
How Does O2 Get Into the Blood?
  • Blood needs a special chemical to “carry” the oxygen:
    • Hemoglobin
      • oxygen “sticks to” or binds with hemoglobin in red blood cells
      • hemoglobin contains iron which binds with oxygen
  • Can you follow the oxygen?
    • In the lungs:
      • Oxygen diffuses from the air in the alveoli into capillaries
      • Oxygen passes into red blood cells and binds with hemoglobin
      • In the blood, oxygen remains bound to hemoglobin until it reaches your cells
    • At your cells:
      • CO2 diffuses from cells into capillaries
      • Hemoglobin releases oxygen and binds with CO2
      • Oxygen diffuses from red blood cells into your body cells
how air moves in and out
How Air Moves in and Out
  • Inhaling: getting air with oxygenin
  • Exhaling: getting air with carbon dioxide out
  • Air is forced into and out of your lungs.

But how?

  • When you squeeze a plastic bottle, what does the air do? Which direction does it move?
  • When you let the plastic bottle spring back into shape, what does the air do? Which direction does it move now?
  • This is because of an important law of how gases work:

Boyle’s Law

boyle s law
Boyle’s Law
  • Robert Boyle discovered that if:
    • volume decreases, pressure increases
    • volume increases, pressure decreases
  • Pressure and volume are inversely related:
    • If one increases, the other decreases
    • This is called an inverse relationship
  • Gases always move from:
    • areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure
    • Boyle’s Law explains how air is forced into and out of your lungs !
slide20

1. Diaphragm & rib muscles (external intercostal muscles) contract

2. Rib cage expands

3. Volume in lungs increases

4. Pressure in lungs decreases

5. Air pressure outside is greater

6. Air rushes into lungs

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Can you fill in steps 1- 6 for exhaling?

lung ventilation through breathing
Lung ventilation through breathing
  • Negative pressure breathing in reptiles and mammals
  • Rib muscles and diaphragm change lung volume and pressure
lung volumes
Lung volumes
  • Factors
  • Smoking, increase due to CO
  • Anxiety, increase due to the effect of adrenaline
  • Drugs, some may cause an increase
  • Environmental factors, increased by high CO2 concentration in the atmosphere
  • Altitude, increased by low O2 conc. In the atmosphere
  • Weight, can increase because fat makes lung ventilation harder (i.e tidal volume falls),
  • Tidal volume
    • Volume of air inhaled and exhaled with each breath
  • Vital capacity
    • Maximum volume inhaled and exhaled during forced breathing
  • Residual volume
    • Air left in alveoli after forced exhalation
slide24
Gases diffuse down pressure gradientsconcentration and pressure drives the movement of gases into and out of blood
respiratory system problems
Respiratory System Problems
  • Dirt, pollen, dust, and smoke damage the system and interrupt the flow of oxygen to your cells
  • Respiratory System Defenses:
    • White blood cells
      • Surround, consume, and digest bacteria
      • Cannot consume asbestos
    • Cilia
      • Tiny hairs lining trachea
      • Hairs “wave” upward to expel foreign particles
      • Cigarette smoke paralyzes cilia
  • Defense against choking:
    • The epiglottis
    • Flap of tissue that closes trachea when you swallow
    • Makes certain food travels through esophagus instead
respiratory disorders
Respiratory Disorders
  • Asthma
    • Bronchial tubes become constricted
    • Symptoms: shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing
    • Causes: environmental factors: allergies, stress, certain foods
  • Emphysema
    • Alveoli lose ability to expand and contract when breathing
    • Alveoli stretch and rupture; scar tissue develops
    • Less oxygen to cells + buildup of CO2
  • Lung cancer
    • Caused by “tars” and other carcinogens in cigarette smoke
    • Cancerous tumors destroy lung tissue
  • Effects of smoking:
    • Short term: carbon monoxide (CO) replaces oxygen in blood
    • Long term: heart disease, emphysema, lung cancer
    • Without smoking, these disorders are a minor problem in society
review questions
Review Questions
  • Which term does not belong with the others and why not?
    • gills, alveoli, diaphragm, trachea
    • asthma, respiration, emphysema, lung cancer
    • gills, lungs, hemoglobin
    • lung cancer, asthma, emphysema
    • alveoli, diaphragm, trachea
  • Explain what happens to your diaphragm and ribcage when you inhale and exhale.
  • What are the reactants and products of cell respiration?
  • Use Boyle’s Law to explain inhaling, exhaling, and why the Heimlich Maneuver works.
  • Describe how gas exchange occurs in the lungs.
  • Why is your trachea lined with cartilage?
  • What is the function of your nasal cavity?
  • What is your epiglottis and what is it for?
  • Why do you have cilia inside your trachea?
  • Which respiratory condition can be the result of allergies?