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New Progresses of Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS). Ailikun Congbin FU MAIRS IPO Institute of Atmospheric Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences. AMY2008, 23-25April 2007, IAP, Beijing. What is MAIRS?.

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new progresses of monsoon asia integrated regional study mairs

New Progresses of Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS)

Ailikun Congbin FU


Institute of Atmospheric Physics

Chinese Academy of Sciences

AMY2008, 23-25April 2007, IAP, Beijing

what is mairs

What is MAIRS?

“Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) is an IRS program under ESSP, MAIRS mainly focuses on the human-monsoon dynamics over the monsoon Asian region.”

why monsoon asia
Dominated by monsoon climate
  • Unbalanced water resource distribution and Rich in ecosystems
  • Increasing temperature in recent decades
  • Large-scale landscape change due to climate change and human activity
  • Increasing emission of greenhouse gases and aerosols
  • Over pumping of ground water and declining water quality
  • Decreasing ecosystem service goods and declining of biodiversity

Why monsoon Asia?

vision of mairs

Vision of MAIRS

“To significantly advance understanding of the interactions between the human-natural components of the overall environment in the monsoon Asian region, and implications for the global earth system, in order to support strategies for sustainable development.”

major achievements 2006

Major achievements 2006

  • Scientific Steering Committee installed
  • International Program Office formally opened in Beijing
  • MAIRS accepted as the first IRS of ESSP
  • International workshop ‘Mountain Zone’ held
  • Initial Science Plan published

Tokyo Bay

scientific highlights

Scientific Highlights

  • Crucial cross-cutting issues related to natural resources in water, energy, food security, biodiversity, air quality and in disasters.
  • MAIRS integrates research on these issues in four geographic Zones in Asia:
    • the Coastal Zone
    • the Mountain Zone
    • the Semi arid Zone
    • the Urban Zone
Coastal Zone

Mountain Zone

Semi-arid Zone

Urban Zone

key points of the themes
Urban Zones

Changes in resources use and emission due to rapid urbanization

Coastal Zones

Rapid transformation of land and marine resources

Semi-arid Zones

Vulnerability of ecosystem due to changing climate and land use

Mountain Zones

Multiple stresses on ecosystem and biophysical resources

Key points of the Themes

hotspots study for mairs

Hotspots study for MAIRS

1, The impacts of climate variation and human perturbation over the semi-arid region

2, Industrial emission and hydrological cycle in expending mega-cities in monsoon Asia

3, global warming and its impacts in Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau region

hotspot study 1 semi arid region
Semi-arid China

Hotspot Study 1: Semi-arid region

Koppan climate classification

Semi-arid China

why semi arid study
Land degradation in semi-arid China
  • Water resources and ecosystem service goods are crucial to the people living in semi-arid regions
  • Semi-arid regions are sensitive to climate variation and human perturbations
  • Semi-arid together with arid areas in monsoon Asia are the major sources of dust aerosol

Why Semi-arid Study?

Land degradation in semi-arid India

Asian Dust


April 7,


10Apr, 2006 inner Mongolia

16Apr, 2006, Beijing

18Apr, 2006, Tokyo


44.42N, 122.87E

Elev: 184 m

Precip: 404 mm




La t: 35.32N,

Lon: 104.09E

Precip: 381.8 mm

Elev: 1874.1 m

on China-loess plateau

Two CEOP reference sites over semi-arid China


New initiative of observation network over arid and semi-arid regions of China (with CERN/CAS, CEOP, MOST, MAHASRI, CMA,
research agenda
Research Agenda
  • Interactions among global warming, monsoon variability and aridity
  • land surface-atmosphere processes over semi-arid region
  • Dust aerosols, the hydrological cycle and regional climate
required field observations
Required field observations
  • Surface Fluxes
  • Atmospheric aerosols, particularly dust aerosols
  • land cover/use information;
  • Biological component
satellite data requirements
Satellite Data Requirements
  • Data from various sensors, such as MODIS onboard NASA’s Terra platform and VEGETATION onboard SPOT.
  • Other sources of operational stationary and polar-orbit satellites, such as China Fengyu series, would also be explored.
model requirements
Model Requirements

The global model outputs will be used to drive the regional environmental system model to understand the physical, chemical and biological processes interactions in the semi-arid regions,

including: dust aerosol generation and transfer; theclimate effects of dust aerosols and land use changes due to human activities, etc.

hotspot study 2 mega cities over yangtze river delta region
Shanghai, China

Bangkok, Thailand

Urban air quality

Bombay, India

Tokyo, Japan

Hotspot study 2: Mega-cities over Yangtze River Delta Region

Semi-arid China

yangtze river delta region yrd in china
Satellite image of Yangtze River delta regionYangtze River Delta Region (YRD)in China
  • YRD is a typical monsoon area, it occupies 1% of Chinese land area,6.9% of China’s population (total 1.3 billion). 21% of GDP in China is from YRD in 2002.
  • Average economic growth rate is about 9.4% in recent 25 years. YRD is also one of the most polluted areas in China
Framework of Integrated Aerosol Study in MAIRS

Natural Science

Monsoon system


Direct and indirect effect

Transport and deposition


Human Development

Industrialization, Urbanization,

enhanced, agriculture

Environmental impact

Agriculture, air quality, human health,

Water sources, extreme climatic event,



(policy, law, institution)

Social Science

theme 1 interaction between aerosols and monsoon system
Impact on air quality and visibility reduction
  • Impact on agriculture yield
  • Impact on human health
  • Impact on extremely climatic events

Theme 2 Impact of aerosols on local environment

  • Human adaptation
  • Control policy and measures
  • Earth System Modeling

Theme 3 Human adaptation and control measures

Scientific themes

Theme 1 Interaction between aerosols and monsoon system
  • Physical, chemical, optical and radiative properties of aerosols
  • Formation, transport, and deposition of aerosols
  • Interaction of aerosol and cloud
  • The effects of aerosols on monsoon circulation and precipitation
research agenda1
Research Agenda
  • The impacts of Anthropogenic aerosol emission to the monsoon circulation and precipitation regime in Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region
  • How does the monsoon climate influence the distribution and transportation of aerosol in YRD region?
required observations
Required observations
  • Physical, chemical, optical and radiative properties of aerosols
  • Emission inventory of key aerosol species and their precursors in YRD
  • Atmosphere chemical components
  • Remote sensing (satellite and aircraft)
  • Meteorological/environmental records
  • Social-economic parameters in Yangtze river delta region
Research base

Y-12: made by China

Aircraft measurement

From Prof. Wang W.

Research base – remote sensing

MODIS AOD - China in 2002

From Dr. Li C.C.

Research base - modelling

Radiative forcing of Black carbon in China

From Dr. Wu J.

mairs important events in 2007

MAIRS Important events in 2007

MAIRS international workshop on semi-arid study (with CEOP, Lanzhou University, NSFC, MOST,CAS, 9-13Aug, 2007, Lanzhou).

Key topics of this meeting:

1, land surface-atmosphere interaction

2, Dust aerosol effect on hydrological cycle (local and regional)

3, climate change monitoring in semi-arid region

Tokyo Bay

mairs important events in 20071

MAIRS Important events in 2007

MAIRS international workshop on Anthropogenic climate change in Monsoon Asia (with MAHASRI/WCRP, AAMP/WCRP, NASA in November 2007).

Key topics of this meeting:

1, global warming impacts in monsoon Asian region

2, land surface change and monsoon climate

3, aerosol emission and hydrological cycle

Tokyo Bay