Marx. Philosophy. I s best known not as a philosopher but as a revolutionary communist, whose works inspired the foundation of many communist regimes in the twentieth century. Trained as a philosopher, Marx turned away from philosophy in his mid-twenties, towards economics and politics.
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Philosophy • Is best known not as a philosopher but as a revolutionary communist, whose works inspired the foundation of many communist regimes in the twentieth century. • Trained as a philosopher, Marx turned away from philosophy in his mid-twenties, towards economics and politics. • However, in addition to his overtly philosophical early work, his later writings have many points of contact with contemporary philosophical debates, especially in the philosophy of history and the social sciences, and in moral and political philosophy. • Historical materialism — Marx's theory of history — is centered around the idea that forms of society rise and fall as they further and then impede the development of human productive power. Marx sees the historical process as proceeding through a necessary series of modes of production, characterized by class struggle, culminating in communism.
Philosophy • Marx's economic analysis of capitalism is based on his version of the labour theory of value, and includes the analysis of capitalist profit as the extraction of surplus value from the exploited proletariat. • The analysis of history and economics come together in Marx's prediction of the inevitable economic breakdown of capitalism, to be replaced by communism. • However Marx refused to speculate in detail about the nature of communism, arguing that it would arise through historical processes, and was not the realisation of a pre-determined moral ideal.
Quotes • A commodity appears at first sight an extremely obvious, trivial thing. But its analysis brings out that it is a very strange thing, abounding in metaphysical subtleties and theological niceties. • A specter is haunting Europe - the specter of communism. • Experience praises the most happy the one who made the most people happy. • History does nothing; it does not possess immense riches, it does not fight battles. It is men, real, living, who do all this. • History repeats itself, first as tragedy, second as farce. • Social progress can be measured by the social position of the female sex.
Metaphors • Landlords, like all other men, love to reap where they never sowed. • Machines were, it may be said, the weapon employed by the capitalists to quell the revolt of specialized labor. • Men's ideas are the most direct emanations of their material state. • Religion is the opium of the masses. • Revolutions are the locomotives of history.
Who cares? • His communist theory is very prominent and effective but it cannot be fully achieved. • However, if it were to be fully achieved without corruption, it would be the most efficient system ever.
Bibliography • Kim Avetisyan-Communist Expert and pal • http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/marx/ • http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/k/karl_marx.html