Helmet locating and tracking system
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Helmet Locating and Tracking System. Kim Bongen, Greg Insana, Fengjia Liu ECE 445 Spring 2011 Team #16 TA Advisor: Xiangyu Ding. Outline. Part 1: Introduction Part 2: Hardware Part 3: Processing Part 4: Display Part 5: Results. Introduction Hardware Processing Display

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Helmet locating and tracking system l.jpg

Helmet Locating and Tracking System

Kim Bongen, Greg Insana, Fengjia Liu

ECE 445 Spring 2011 Team #16

TA Advisor: Xiangyu Ding


Outline l.jpg
Outline

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

  • Introduction

  • Hardware

  • Processing

  • Display

  • Summary & Concluding Remarks


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Background and Motivation

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

  • Background

    • Evolution of military avionics

    • Helmet-mounted Displays (HMD’s)

  • Motivation

    • Partnership with industry

    • Exploring military technology


Project objective l.jpg

Product features

Sense the elevation, azimuth and tilt of a pilot's head/helmet relative to the cockpit

Compatible with the Scorpion Helmet Mounted Cueing System

Compact & lightweight

Product Benefits

Increased tracking accuracy over current solutions

Cost-efficient components and design

Project Objective

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results


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Ethical Considerations

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

  • Acknowledge key outside contributions

    • Bill Haynes and Gentex Corp

    • Mark Smart & ECE Parts Shop Staff

  • Communication with Gentex Corp

  • Design and product quality


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Key Sensor Board Components

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

  • 3-axis Accelerometer/Magnetometer

    • Linear acceleration

    • Magnetic field

  • 3-axis Gyroscope

    • Angular acceleration

  • GPS Chip


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PCB Design and Fabrication

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

  • Designed using EAGLE editor 4.61r2

  • Dimensions: 2.4x2.4 in

  • Predominantly one-sided design


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PCB – Top Side

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results


Pcb bottom side l.jpg
PCB – Bottom Side

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results


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Sensor Board Testing

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

  • General Procedure

    • Voltage at source and ground lines

    • Output Test

    • Accuracy Test

    • Drift Test

    • Debugging

  • Components

    • Accelerometer/Magnetometer

    • Gyroscope

    • PCB


Pcb testing l.jpg
PCB Testing

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

  • Ensure all wires functioned as intended

  • Utilized digital multimeter to measure resistance on voltage, ground, and data lines


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PCB Testing Results (Voltage and Ground)

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results


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PCB Testing Results (Resistors and Top Wires)

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results


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Interfacing

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

  • Digital outputs from chip

    • I2C Protocol

    • 16-bit signed values for all three coordinates

    • Linear acceleration from accelerometer in m/s2

    • Angular velocity from gyroscope in deg/s

  • FPGA

    • Controls I2C clock and data lines

    • Stores settings for the operation of the chips


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Major Components

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

  • I2C Communicator

    • Writes appropriate settings to control registers on the chip

    • Continuously reads the output from the output registers

  • Calibration

    • Removes the constant offset from the output of the chips

  • Conversion

    • Converts the output to useable units

  • Integration

    • Compares the current input with the previous inputs to compute the integral for all three coordinates


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Plane Transformation Problem

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

za

za

Zw

Zw

ya

ya

xa

xa

Yw

Yw

Xw

Xw

Z Angle: 0o

Z Angle: -45o


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Plane Transformation

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

  • Transforms the acceleration values from the chip plane to the world plane

  • Uses angles from the gyroscope

  • Needs sine and cosine values provided by a look-up table


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Block Diagram

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

Integration

I2C

Calibration

Conversion

Gyroscope

Calibration

Conversion

I2C

Plane Transformation

Integration

Integration

Accelerometer


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Block Diagram

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

x, y, z

16-bits each

x, y, z

32-bits each

clock, data

1-bit each

Integration

I2C

Calibration

Conversion

Gyroscope

Calibration

Conversion

I2C

Plane Transformation

Integration

Integration

Accelerometer

clock, data

1-bit each

x, y, z

32-bits each

x, y, z

16-bits each


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Numeric Display

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

  • Switches select data to be displayed

  • Data needed to be converted to binary coded decimal (BCD)

  • Data then sent to display in ASCII

  • 2x16 line display – with labels can only fit 5 digits of x, y, and z


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Start

Does the MSB = 1?

Yes

No

Sign is negative

Sign is positive

Convert data to positive binary representation

Shift in MSB

Is this the final bit?

Are any of the BCD digits > 5?

No

Yes

No

Add 3 to any BCD digit >5

Yes

End

Numeric Display

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

BCD Conversion

  • “shift, add three” algorithm

  • Mathematical simplification of the subtract 10, add 16 method.

  • Example: Twelve =

    1100 => 0001 0010


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Graphical Display

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

  • Implemented via the VGA port on DE2 board

  • Switches used to select which value to control the ball

    • Acceleration

    • Velocity

    • Position

    • Angle


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Computation Testing

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

  • Simulations verify theoretical functionality of all entities

  • Drift from first level integration depends on calibration

    • Increases linearly with time

    • Approximately 20 mm/s per second and 20 millidegrees per second

  • Drift from second integration depends on first level

    • Increases quadratically with time


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Statistics

Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

Sampling rate: 41.56 Hz

  • I2C Communication: 240.6 µs (every 100th data point is used)

    Computation Times:

  • Calibration: 40 ns

  • Conversion: 80 ns

  • Integration: 500 ns

  • Plane Transformation: 180 ns

  • Total comp time with partial functionality: 1.12 µs

  • Total estimated time with full functionality: 1.92 µs


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    FPGA Benefits and Limitations

    Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

    Benefits

    • Easily adaptable to existing systems.

    • Speed

    • Size and weight

    • Familiarity

    Limitations

    • Embedded multipliers

    • Rounding Error

    • Available memory for look-up table


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    Challenges

    Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

    Embedded Multipliers

    • Altera DE2 has 70 9-bit multipliers

    • 16-bit multiplication for conversion

      • Requires 2 multipliers for the 2 sensors, done on all 3 coordinates  12 multipliers

    • 32-bit multiplication for integration

      • Requires 4 multipliers done on all 3 coordinates

      • once for gyroscope, twice for accelerometer  36 multipliers

    • 16-bit multiplication for plane transformation

      • Requires 2 multipliers for every multiplication done within the rotation matrix

      • Result  56 multipliers

        Total Multipliers: 104/70


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    Challenges

    Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

    Rounding Error

    • Any division done results in rounding error

    • Minimized by using smaller units (micrometers and microdegrees)

    • Smaller units  more bits to store number  more multipliers

    • Inaccurate calculations can lead to drift


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    Recommendations

    Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: HardwarePart 3: ProcessingPart 4: DisplayPart 5: Results

    • Use specialized FPGA circuit

      • Focus on components used in circuit (multipliers)

    • Consider using computer for computations

      • More processing power

      • Signal processing to get better results

      • Determine if the propagation delay is small enough

    • Investigate floating point


    Special thanks l.jpg
    Special Thanks

    • Bill Haynes & Gentex Corp

    • Mark Smart & ECE Parts Shop Staff

    • Xiangyu Ding



    Developmental notes l.jpg

    General Outline

    Introduction

    Objective

    Review Original Design

    Describe project build and functional tests

    Discuss successes and challenges

    Other tests

    Recommendations

    Developmental Notes


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