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“We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit.” - Aristotle. 1. Copyright – GS Custom CC 2011. This slide show of 68 slides may be copied and distributed freely provided it is done so unaltered and complete.

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slide1
“We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit.” - Aristotle

1

Copyright – GS Custom CC 2011. This slide show of 68 slides may be copied and distributed freely provided it is done so unaltered and complete.

slide2
We exist to improve the success of your shooting activity.
  • We do not make the rules, we observe them and report them to you.
  • When the conventional does not get the job done, we will seek success in the unconventional.

2

slide3
Why do hunts fail?

Why does one man place first in a competition and another second?

3

slide5
Bad Shot Placement
  • Bullet Failure

5

slide6
Shot Placement is

job number one.

6

slide7
Shot Placement – Three elements make up the whole
  • The shooter – Should know the extent of his ability
  • The firearm – Must be appropriate for the task
  • The ammunition – New rules can now be applied

7

slide8
Shot Placement
  • The shooter – Chooses the components
  • The firearm – Dictates the choice of components
  • The ammunition – Is as good as the chosen components

8

slide9
Fact of Life: Four different brands of brass, loaded with the use of a teaspoon, topped with pulled bullets from the friend at the scrap yard and primed with once fired primers, will not work.

9

slide10
Uniform, well prepared brass, loaded with a uniform volume of powder, topped with a concentrically made

bullet and ignited with a good primer, will always be better.

10

slide11
Shot Placement
  • The shooter – Chooses the components
  • The firearm – Dictates the choice of components
  • The ammunition – Is as good as the chosen components

11

slide12
The chamber dictates which brass must be used.

The bore of the barrel dictates the diameter of the bullet.

The twist rate dictates the length of the bullet

12

slide13
CIP

and

SAAMI

specifications contain all

this data. If a rifle does

not measure within these

parameters, it is out of

specification and cannot be expected to shoot well.

13

slide14
Shot Placement
  • The shooter – Chooses the components
  • The firearm – Dictates the choice of components
  • The ammunition – Is as good as the chosen components

14

slide15
At GS Custom we design the right bullet for every application. From our range of more than 270 bullets, we then tell you which one it is, so that you do not have to blow away your hard earned cash to find out which one to use.
  • Our recommendation is based on:
  • Bore and groove diameter
  • Twist rate
  • Case capacity
  • Muzzle velocity of the caliber
  • Freebore
  • Case neck length
  • Intended target
  • Intended range

15

slide16
Our recommendation allows you to optimise the External Ballistics of your rifle.
  • Rate of twist
  • Caliber
  • Bullet design

The

  • Static Stability
  • Dynamic Stability
  • Tractability

Determines

16

slide17
Tractability

Static Stability

Dynamic Stability

These are the factors that determine how well a bullet flies and what it’s attitude is when it arrives at the target.

17

slide18
Most of this is well known to long distance hunters and extreme range shooters, but is often not regarded as important by those shooting inside 500 meters.

As with all specifications, there is some leeway with bullet length and stability but, the closer one stays to the correct numbers, the better the results.

18

slide19
Navigate the GSC website at

http://www.gscustom.co.za

The main pages of the site are linked at the top of every

page. Eg: Click on Technical Data to go here. ---------

Click on HV Bullets to go to the data.

Find your caliber in the right hand column and click on

the bullet number to go to the bullet data page ----

19

slide20
Having chosen the correct components for stable flight,

how does GS Custom help you with your shot placement?

20

slide21
Consider that, to connect with the right spot, you have to:
  • Correctly estimate the distance
  • Correctly estimate the wind drift
  • Hope the animal does not move while the bullet is in flight

21

slide22
It is therefore required that you:
  • Know the trajectory of the bullet (this varies with altitude and temperature)
  • Know the wind direction and speed (which requires great skill and training)
  • Know the time of flight and allow for it as best you can.

22

slide23
OR

23

slide24
Use components that will minimise all of these elements.

Test your limitations on the range and hunt accordingly.

24

slide25
Trajectory, wind drift and time of flight are governed by two characteristics of the bullet:

Ballistic coefficient

Speed

25

slide26
GS Custom HV bullets consistently give you the highest BC

values and more speed than what is possible with any other brand.

26

slide27
What does this mean in practice?

If the bullet can withstand the impact speed, higher speed will always improve performance.

27

slide30
What does this mean in practice?

Time of Flight

If you think slow bullets are OK, consider this.

An antelope that spooks and takes off at the instant you break the shot, will be going at 10km/h almost instantly.

That is 277cm/sec.

It will move 80mm (3.15”) in the time it takes the bullet to cover 200m.

30

slide32
What does this mean in practice?

Momentum and Energy

A light, fast bullet, with the same momentum as a heavier, slower bullet, will penetrate to the same depth, if both are similarly constructed.

If momentum is the same, the faster bullet will have more kinetic energy.

Kinetic energy and wound channel volume are tied together.

If the choice is between two bullets that will go to the same depth but one will result in a larger wound channel volume, there is no contest.

Momentum = Speed x Weight

Kinetic Energy = Weight/2 x Speed Squared

This is not rocket science – It is just logic.

32

slide33
Precisely made for consistent, repeatable results

.

All bullets are manufactured to within 0.005mm (0.0002”) of

specification and within 0.25% of the stated weight. Always.

Do your load development only once. No more last minute hassles

and expense because the next batch is not the same as the previous.

33

slide35
We will consistently improve your shot placement compared to old technology bullets.

Luck is packed into the box at the factory.

35

slide36
Reason #2

Bullet Failure

36

slide37
This section on bullet failure is in the context of
  • hunting of game for venison or trophy. Varminting and sport shooting have different requirements.
  • Bullet failure occurs when:
  • An expanding bullet:
  • Fails to expand at all
  • Deviates significantly from the original bullet path
  • Expands to the point of complete fragmentation
  • A solid bullet:
  • Fails to penetrate deep enough
  • Deviates significantly from the original bullet path
  • Bends or breaks

37

slide38
In the past many reloaders went to the trouble and expense of developing two loads: One to accommodate the hunting of game in bush and the other for the hunting of plains game at longer ranges.

38

slide39
With lead core bullets, the high impact speeds of close hunting, is too destructive of the bullet to give consistent results. For bush hunting, where distances are short, it is therefore better to use heavy for caliber bullets, at lower speeds, to prevent bullet failure.

39

slide40
The lower impact speeds of longer range plains game hunting, allows the use of lighter, faster bullets for flatter trajectories and good terminal performance. With lead core bullets, this convention of using slow, heavy bullets for bush and lighter, faster bullets for plains game has become the accepted way.

40

slide43
Bullet construction: HV and HP impact characteristics 1000fps to approximately 2600fps.

43

slide44
Bullet construction: HV and HP impact characteristics approximately 2600fps to 4000fps.

44

slide45
Bullet construction: HV and HP impact process.

It is not uncommon to

find petals at the same distance into the animal as the bullet shaft.

In the tests illustrated

here, petals were found at the same depth as the bullet shaft.

Wound channel shape

and volume is dependent on bullet shape and speed.

slide46
Bullet construction: Solid bullet impact characteristics.

1. All solids deform.

2. When a solid deforms in such a way that it loses the characteristics that allow linear, deep penetration, the solid fails.

3. When a solid is not designed to deform in a controlled manner, to retain the qualities that allow linear, deep expansion, it fails.

Bending

And Tumbling

Structural

failure

Breaking

slide47
Bullet construction: FN impact characteristics.

GSC FN solids are made from copper

which is tougher than lead cores, softer

than brass, more ductile and more

malleable.

slide48
Bullet construction: FN impact characteristics.

GSC FN solids are made from copper

which is tougher than lead cores, softer

than brass, more ductile and more

malleable.

GSC FN solids, recovered from

elephant, shows moderate

deformation but no breakage

or bending that is severe

enough to influence linear

penetration.

slide49
Bullet construction: FN impact characteristics.

GSC FN solids are made from copper

which is tougher than lead cores, softer

than brass, more ductile and more

malleable.

GSC FN solids, recovered from

elephant, shows moderate

deformation but no breakage

or bending that is severe

enough to influence linear

penetration.

Under the most severe impact stress, where

lead core and brass solids fail, GSC FN solids

retain full weight. Shoulder and dart

stabilisation is increased by the designed

deformation of the meplat. The FN at right

broke the femur of a six ton bull elephant

and continued to penetrate, in a straight line,

for another 75cm.

slide50
These GSC FN Solids were manufactured 12

years apart. They were subjected to impact

stresses that would normally spell failure for

lead core and brass bullets. They deformed

in the manner predicted by design and

retained the properties required for linear

penetration, instead of failing.

Rock solid reliability.

slide51
Twist and Static Stability Factor (S/F): Short and medium range.

Stability factor is a major driver of how a bullet will behave during and after impact.

The manner in which the bullet will pass from air to tissue is governed by the stability factor.

Once the bullet is submerged in the target, other forces determine what its behaviour will be and stability factor no longer plays a role.

Applications of flat fire to 500m with medium calibres cannot have too much twist (stability factor).

slide53
Twist, Dynamic Stability and Tractability:

Long and extreme range.

  • The factors that must be considered are:
  • A match between bullet length and form,
  • twist rate and stability factor.
  • The launch speed.
  • 3. The required terminal performance.
slide54
GS Custom HV bullets can be applied over a much wider range of speeds.

This .224” bullet is used regularly in 222 Remingtons at 3600 fps and up to 4750 fps in a custom built wildcat 22x64.

slide56
At speeds that will reduce lesser bullets to dust, HV bullets still retain 80% weight.

The flat meplat, cylinder shape that is left, with all the petals torn off, results in even more destruction in the wound channel than that of a more rounded shape of larger diameter. The combination of speed, retained weight and a uniform cylinder shape gives a laser straight wound channel of larger volume and more depth, than is possible with any other shape.

With HV Bullets you get predictable, extreme

impact speed terminal ballistics, previously only

possible with the toughest of premium bullets.

Develop one load, take it anywhere, shoot anything.

But this does not sound logical.

How does it actually work?

slide57
Here are some quotes from “Bullet Penetration – Modeling the Dynamics and the Incapacitation Resulting from Wound Trauma.” by Duncan MacPherson, published by Ballistic Publications, Box 772, El Segundo CA 90245

“The permanent wound cavity effective crossectional area at any location is equal to the bullet crossection at that location modified by a shape factor for the bullet configuration……” Page 58

“The maximum disruption is for a sharp edged cylinder….” Page 89

“The second factor immediately obvious from table 11-3 is the dramatic difference in effectiveness for a cylinder relative to all other configurations (which differ little from each other). The efficiency of the cylinder (full wadcutter) has long been known….” Page 277

slide58
We have observed first hand the effects of an edged cylinder shape on game with our devastatingly effective FN bullet.

The HV bullet in reality turns into an FN bullet at high impact speeds.

At worst then, the HV bullet will expand to double caliber or more, with excellent retention. At best, it will turn into an FN on impact – totally reliable and very efficient, every time, 1600 fps to 5000 fps.

Recovered and unfired

FN Bullets

Recovered

HV Bullet

slide59
Why is a flat meplat or cylinder shape at high speed so effective?

What is the actual mechanism at work?

THE RULES

The passage of the bullet through tissue displaces tissue from the bullet

path. This displacement results in the displaced material moving away

from the centre line of the bullet path at a given speed.

The elements of speed are time and distance. The shorter the time is in

relation to the distance, the higher the speed.

The higher the speed of the displaced tissue, the larger the temporary

cavity will be.

When the temporary cavity exceeds the elastic properties of the tissue, it

contributes to the permanent cavity caused by the physical passage of the

bullet.

The shaft of the bullet plays no role in the size of either the permanent, or

the temporary cavity, as it is not in contact with the tissue until it has almost

stopped. The exception is, of course, a tumbling bullet.

With these rules in mind, here is how different nose shapes work.

slide60
Assume a cone shaped bullet that is not deformed by the forces acting on it

in the penetration of tissue. The result will be a crush cavity, where tissue is

mechanically crushed by the bullet, and a temporary cavity, determined by

the time over which the tissue is displaced to the diameter of the bullet.

As is well known, this nose configuration will not have a permanent wound

channel of large volume. In practise, this would be the spitser bullet that

does not mushroom at all, or a low velocity military full metal jacket that is

notorious for wounding of animals. The permanent wound channel will fall

somewhere between the crush cavity and the temporary cavity, depending

on the impact speed of the bullet.

slide61
Here is a bullet mushroomed to double the original diameter. From experience we

know that this will result in a far bigger permanent wound cavity than the previous

bullet. The reason for this is simply because the relationship between time and

displacement distance has changed. The crush cavity has increased and, due to the

altered, shortened nose configuration, the time element has shortened. The

displacement speed of the tissue is increased, causing it to stretch away from the

bullet path much further and disrupting more tissue before the disrupting force can

be matched by the resilience of the tissue. Depending on the impact speed, the

permanent cavity falls somewhere between the temporary cavity and the crush

cavity. The higher the speed, the closer it is to the temporary cavity and, the lower

the speed, the closer it is to the crush cavity.

slide62
This brings us to the reason for the effectiveness of a cylinder shape. Examples of

this would be the GS Custom HV and FN bullets, and other monometal bullets, solid

shank bullets and partition style jacketed lead bullets, that assume cylinder nose

shapes when impact speed is high enough. The displacement distance remains at

caliber size, but the time element has been shortened to the extent that it has all

but disappeared. The displacement velocity is so fast and violent that the resilience

of the tissue is greatly exceeded and the temporary cavity contributes much more to

the permanent cavity than with any other shape. Additionally, penetration is

improved and a cylinder is far more predictable in its path than any other shape.

slide63
This means you can now develop one load and take it anywhere

If over and under expansion is solved with HV Bullets, how do they compare to the traditional two bullet setup? Can HV Bullets really replace both effectively?

The comparison that follows is between the 150 gr HV bullet, a lead core 165 gr boat tail and a 220gr round nose flat base lead core.

Momentum and energy figures are based on 85% retention for the HV and 75% for the lead core bullets.

slide64
Momentum carries the bullet forwards into the animal. From this

graph one sees that the 220 gr bullet is better than the 165 gr bullet

at close range, supporting the traditional way of thinking. It is, however,

outperformed by the HV from the muzzle. New rules!

slide65
Energy is in close relationship to the temporary wound cavity volume.

The larger the temporary cavity and the more effective the bullet nose shape, the more it contributes to the permanent cavity. The graph speaks for itself.

slide66
Here are the actual numbers for a precise comparison.

150 gr HV Bullet

165 gr Lead Core

220 gr Lead Core

slide67
GS Custom HV and FN Bullets

When the chips are down, we

will give you the best shot possible

slide68
Parting Shot

It is the size of the fight in the

dog that counts

68

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