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(V)HE-LHC studies & long-term plan. Frank Zimmermann 7 th meeting of CERN Machine Advisory Committee 14 M arch 2013. w ork supported by the European Commission under the FP7 Research Infrastructures project EuCARD, grant agreement no. 227579.

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v he lhc studies long term plan

(V)HE-LHC studies & long-term plan

Frank Zimmermann

7th meeting of CERN Machine Advisory Committee

14 March 2013

work supported by the European Commission under the FP7

Research Infrastructures project EuCARD, grant agreement no. 227579

slide2

Recommendationsfrom European StrategyGroup, January2013

Recommendation #1:

… Europe’s top priority should be the exploitation of the full potential of the LHC, including the high-luminosity upgrade of the machine and detectors with a view to collecting ten times more data than the initial design …

Recommendation #2:

Europe needs to be in a position to propose an ambitious post-LHC accelerator project at CERN by the time of the next Strategy update [2017/18] when physics results from the LHC running at 14 TeV will be available [→ design studies & vigorous accelerator R&D programme]

Recommendation #3:

There is a strong scientific case for an electron-positron collider, complementary to the LHC, that can study the properties of the Higgs boson and other particles with unprecedented precision and whose energy can be upgraded

projects beyond hl lhc
projects beyond HL-LHC
  • LHeCep collider & Higgs factory
  • SAPPHiREggHiggs factory
  • HE-LHC/VHE-LHC pp/AA collider
  • TLEP/LEP3 e+e- Higgs factory ++
  • TLHeC/VHE-LHeCep colliders…
  • ….
  • … others (ILC, CLIC, neutrino factory, …) – not covered here
slide4

Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC)

baseline design

ERL LHeC:

recirculating

linac with

energy

recovery

slide5

LHeC Conceptual Design Report

LHeC CDR published in

J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 39

075001 (2012)

~600 pages

lhec erl layout
LHeC ERL layout

two 10-GeV SC linacs, 3-pass up, 3-pass down; 6.4 mA, 60 GeV e-’s collide w. LHC protons/ions

A. Bogacz, O. Brüning,

M. Klein, D. Schulte,

F. Zimmermann, et al

(C=1/3 LHC allows for ion clearing gaps)

slide7

X(125) seems to strongly couple to gg

LHC ATLAS result (2012)

LHC CMS result (2012)

TeV Run-II result

a new type of collider
a new type of collider?

s-channel production;

lower energy;

no e+source

g

t, W, …

H

“most” sensitive to new physics

another advantage:

no beamstrahlung

→ higher energy reach

than e+e- colliders

g

ggcollider Higgs factory

c ombining photon science particle physics

ggcollider based on e-

combining photon science & particle physics!

few J pulse

energy with

l~350 nm

K.-J. Kim, A. Sessler

Beam Line

Spring/Summer 1996

reconfiguring lhec sapphire
Reconfiguring LHeC → SAPPHiRE

SAPPHiRE*

ggHiggs factory

LHeC-ERL

*Small Accelerator for Photon-Photon Higgs production using Recirculating Electrons

slide11

SAPPHiRE: a Small ggHiggs Factory

arXiv:1208.2827

scale ~ European XFEL,

about 10-20k Higgs per year

SAPPHiRE: Small Accelerator for Photon-Photon Higgs production using Recirculating Electrons

slide12

LHeC R&D items

  • high-Q RF cavities & coupler
  • dedicated ERL RF test facility
  • IR layout
  • Sapphire R&D items
  • ggIR, optical cavity, laser
  • beam separation scheme,
  • polarized e-gun
lhc he lhc vhe lhc
LHC→HE-LHC/VHE-LHC

HL-LHC (~2022-2030)

will deliver ~9x more H bosons!

ECoM=14 TeV,5x1034cm-2s-1

with luminosity leveling

LHCis the 1st Higgs factory!

ECoM=8-14 TeV,1034cm-2s-1

total cross section at 8 TeV: 22 pb

1 M Higgs produced so far – more to come

15 H bosons / min – and more to come

8 14 TeV: ggHx1.5

  • - pushes magnet technology!

F. Cerutti, P. Janot

VHE-LHC: new 80 km tunnel (2040?)

ECoM=84-104 TeV,x1034cm-2s-1

HE-LHC: in LHC tunnel (2035-)

ECoM=33 TeV,x1034cm-2s-1

16-T or 20-T magnets

20-T dipole magnet

80 km tunnel

14  33 TeV:

HHx6

HHx42

E. Todesco, L. Rossi,P.. McIntyre

J. Osborne, C. Waaijer, S. Myers

he lhc studies
HE-LHC- studies

CERN working group in 2010

published report R. Assmann et al,

“First Thoughts on a Higher-Energy LHC”

CERN-ATS-2010-177

EuCARD-AccNet workshop HE-LHC’10

Proceedings (ed. E. Todesco, F. Zimmermann)

“EuCARD-AccNet-EuroLumi Workshop:

The High-Energy Large Hadron Collider”

arXiv:1111.7188 ; CERN-2011-003

HiLumi LHC WP16 (coord. L. Rossi, dep. F. Zimmermann)

he lhc
HE-LHC

HE-LHC

20-T dipole magnets

SPS+

higher energy

transfer lines

2-GeV Booster

Linac4

vhe lhc studies
VHE-LHC- studies

80-km tunnel study

John Osborne, C. Waaijer,

“Pre-Feasability Assessment for an 80 km Tunnel Project at CERN”

Open Symposium - European Strategy

Preparatory Group

Contribution ID : 165

European Strategy briefing booklet

section in accelerator chapter

R. Aleksan, C. Biscari, M. Lindroos, L. Rivkin, F. Zimmermann

vhe lhc
VHE-LHC

VHE-LHC

VHE-LHC-LER

=TLEP!

(Lucio Rossi)

slide19

80-km tunnel in Geneva area – “best” option

«Pre-FeasibilityStudy for an 80-km tunnel at CERN»

John Osborne and Caroline Waaijer,

CERN, ARUP & GADZ, submitted to ESPG

even better

100 km?

80 km tunnel c ost estimate
80-km Tunnel Cost Estimate
  • Costs
    • Only the minimum civil requirements (tunnel, shafts and caverns) are included
    • 5.5% for external expert assistance

(underground works only)

  • Excluded from costing
    • Other services like cooling/ventilation/

electricity etc

    • service caverns
    • beam dumps
    • radiological protection
    • Surface structures
    • Access roads
    • In-house engineering etcetc
  • Cost uncertainty = 50%
  • Next stage should include costing based on technical drawings

John Osborne & Caroline Waaijer (CERN)

slide21

(V)HE-LHC parameters – 1

smaller?! (x1/4?)

O. Dominguez, L. Rossi, F.Z.

slide22

(V)HE-LHC parameters – 2

(s=100 mb)

numbers for lifetime and average integrated luminosity need to

be updated for ~40% higher cross section at 100 TeV

O. Dominguez, L. Rossi, F.Z.

slide23

time evolution for VHE-LHC (12 h)

O. Dominguez

intensity

emittances

integrated

luminosity

luminosity

slide24

peak luminosity, pile up, radiation

are 5x1034 cm-2s-1 and pile up of 135 good

targets for HE-LHC and VHE-LHC?

it would be easy to get more luminosity

slide25

radiation damping

  • use controlled blow up by noise injection:
  • longitudinal plane
  • (constant bunch length, Landau damping)
  • transverse planes when needed
    • (constant beam-beam tune shift)
    • choose round (ex=ey) or flat beams (ex>>ey)
    • shorter spacing (5 ns): better use of damping
slide26

SR heat load

HE-LHC: 3.7 W/m

beam screen at 40-60 K (instead of 4.6-20 K)

+ warm photon absorbers for vacuum?

+ HTS coating on 50-K beam screen??

VHE-LHC: 35.6 W/m

dedicated photon

stops

as developed by FNAL for

VLHC by P. Bauer et al.

(2001-2003)

slide27

collimation challenges

  • higher energy density
    • → need for more robust materials
  • cross section for single diffractive scattering
  • increases with energy → degraded cleaning efficiency
  • smaller beam sizes & smaller gaps → higher precision in collimator control
  • (warm? or shielded SC) magnets in the collimator insertions
  • VHE-LHC: 99 W/m
  • dedicated photon stops

R. Assmann, HE-LHC’10

quads in parameter plane

VHE-LHC

?

quads in parameter plane

arc

?

IR

HE-LHC

E. Todesco

Operational gradient as a function of coil aperture for LHC and US-LARP quadrupoles (markers), scaling laws for limits in Nb.Ti and Nb3Sn (solid curves) [7], and expected values for HE LHC arc and IR (stars).

HL-LHC prepares (V)HE-LHC!

p ossible arrangement in vhe lhc tunnel
possible arrangement in VHE-LHC tunnel

fromH. Piekarz HE-LHC’10 Proc. p. 101

30 mm V gap

50 mm H gap

L. Rossi

c ircular e e higgs factories lep3 tlep
circular e+e-Higgs factories LEP3 & TLEP

option 1: installation in the LHC tunnel “LEP3”

+ inexpensive (<0.1xLC)

+ tunnel exists

+ reusing ATLAS and CMS detectors

+ reusing LHC cryoplants

- interference with LHC and HL-LHC

option 2: in new 80-km tunnel “TLEP”

+ higher energy reach, 5-10x higher luminosity

+ decoupled from LHC/HL-LHC operation & construction

+ tunnel can later serve for HE-LHC (factor 3 in energy from tunnel alone) with LHC remaining as injector

- more expensive (?) but synergies w.VHE-LHC (& LHeC)

lep3 tlep e e zh e e w w e e z e e t
LEP3, TLEP(e+e- -> ZH, e+e- →W+W-, e+e- →Z,[e+e-→t )

key parameters

at the Z pole repeating LEP physics programme in a few minutes…

slide33

beam lifetime

  • LEP2:
  • beam lifetime ~ 6 h
  • due to radiativeBhahba scattering (s~0.215 b)
  • TLEP:
  • with L~5x1034 cm−2s−1 at each of four IPs:
  • tbeam,TLEP~16 minutes from rad. Bhabha
  • additional lifetime limit due to beamstrahlung(1) large momentum acceptance (dmax,RF≥3%), (2) flat(ter) beams, and/or
  • (3) fast replenishing
  • (Valery Telnov, Kaoru Yokoya, Marco Zanetti)

SuperKEKB: t~6 minutes!

slide34

circular HFs – top-up injection

double ring with top-up injectionsupports short lifetime & high luminosity

A. Blondel

top-up experience: PEP-II, KEKB, light sources

top up injection schematic cycle
top-up injection: schematic cycle

beam current in collider (15 min. beam lifetime)

100%

99%

almost constant current

energy of accelerator ring

120 GeV

injection into collider

injection into

accelerator

20 GeV

acceleration time = 1.6 s

(assuming SPS ramp rate)

10 s

slide36

beamstrahlung lifetime

  • simulation w 360M macroparticles
  • t varies exponentially w energy acceptance h
  • post-collision E tail → lifetime t

beam lifetime versus acceptance dmaxfor 1 IP:

M. Zanetti

slide37

beamstrahlung lifetime

beam lifetime vsdmax for various ke=ex/ey

LEP3

SuperKEKB will

approach ke~400-500

M. Koratzinos

slide38

Circular & Linear HF:

peak luminosity vs energy

LEP3 , TLEP

x 4 IPs

LEP3/TLEPwouldbe THE choice for e+e- collision energies up to ~370 GeV

K. Yokoya, KEK

slide39

comparing expected performance on Higgs coupling

TLEP has the best capabilities

Report of the ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop “Accelerators for a Higgs Factory: Linear vs. Circular” (HF2012) by Alain Blondel, Alex Chao, WeirenChou, JieGao, Daniel Schulte and Kaoru Yokoya, FERMILAB-CONF-13-037-APC,IHEP-AC-2013-1, SLAC-PUB-15370,CERN-ATS-2013-032, arXiv:1302.3318 [physics.acc-ph]

risk extrapolation from past experience

recent comment by eminent German particle physicist:

“TLEP is much riskier and its performance highly uncertain;

while the ILC performance numbers are very conservative” [?]

risk? -extrapolation from past experience
v ertical rms ip spot sizes in nm
vertical rms IP spot sizes in nm

in regular

font:

achieved

in italics:

design

values

by*:

5 cm→

1 mm

LEP3/TLEP

will learn

from ATF2 &

SuperKEKB

SAPPHiRE

a step

towards

ILC/CLIC

p roton injector

electroninjector

proton injector

I=75 kA

I =3 kA

with I = 115-120 kA Bmax= 2 T

low injection field~ 74 G;

concern for fieldquality, but consideredpossîble ;

alreadytestedat 100 G;

nextmagnetwillbetested to 50 G

L. Rossi

super r esistive cable

L. Rossi

super-resistivecable

20 mm thickshieldaroundcable

Gaps: 2 x V30xH60 mm

Cryostat : 60 mm

He envelope : 50 mm

SC part: 2 layers MgB2(Bi2212)150x1mm

Cu innercore 40 mm

Coolinghole: 10 mm

Cable:

innercore of 40 mm Cu (700 mm2)

+ outercore : 2 layers, 150 strands of MgB2, 1 kA each; Outer size 45 mm.

120 kA =>120 k€/km !

For electrons: Cu water cooled,

Jov 2.5 A/mm2

For protons: 800 A/strands

120 kA (for >2.1 T); central copperacts as stabilizer

vhe lhc tlep tunnel

L. Rossi

VHE-LHC+TLEP tunnel

LER for e+e- 350 GeV

4 magnets, 8 channels

4 channel

P ~50 MW

LER p-p injector

1 magnet, 2 channels

Top 10 K; Pcryostat< 10 MW

second magnetcouldbepowered as return line

TBS: 100 K ?, photon stoppers

use of 1 or 2 channels for e ring for a 150 GeV e- vs. 7-50 TeV p

e- vs. ions also possible

slide45

(V)HE-LHC R&D items

  • tunnel
  • high-field magnets
  • super-ferric/-resistive LER magnets
  • SR handling
  • TLEP R&D items
  • high-power RF system
  • by*=1 mm IR with large acceptance
  • radiation shielding
slide46

possible long-term strategy

TLEP (80 km,

e+e-, up to

~350 GeV c.m.)

HE-LHC

(pp, 33 TeVc.m.)

PSB

PS (0.6 km)

SPS (6.9 km)

LHC (26.7 km)

LHeC & SAPPHiRE

(9 km)

VHE-LHC

(pp, up to

100 TeVc.m.)

same detectors!

(E. Meschi)

also: e± (120 GeV) – p (7 & 50 TeV) collisions

≥50 years of e+e-, pp, ep/A physics at highest energies

slide47

tentative time line

1980

2000

2010

1990

2030

2020

2040

Design,

R&D

LHC

Constr.

Physics

Proto.

Design,

R&D

HL-LHC

Constr.

Physics

LHeC

& SAPPHiRE

Constr.

Design,

R&D

Physics

Design,

R&D

TLEP

Physics

Constr.

Design,

R&D

Physics

VHE-LHC

Constr.

p ersonal conclusions
personal conclusions
  • need to pursue vigorous accelerator R&D to be ready to propose new project by 2017/18
  • TLEP, LEP3, SAPPHiRE& LHeC, HE-LHC and VHE-LHC are exciting options with large synergies
  • TLEP superior in terms of energy & luminosity, and extendable towards VHE-LHC, preparing ≥50 years of e+e-, pp, ep/A physics at highest energies
  • TLEP comes for “free” (tunnel, magnets, & detectors “the same” as for VHE-LHC; RF system, cryogenics, & TLEP injector from LHeC)
  • SuperKEKB will be important TLEP demonstrator!
slide49

“A circle is a round straight line with a hole in the middle.”

    • Mark Twain,
    • in "English as She Is Taught",
    • Century Magazine, May 1887
slide50

Appendix

  • example parameters for HL-LHC, LHeC, LEP3, TLEP, HE-LHC, VHE-LHC, TLHeC, VHE-TLHeC
  • references & events
slide53

LEP3/TLEP parameters -1

soon at SuperKEKB:

bx*=0.03 m, bY*=0.03 cm

SuperKEKB:ey/ex=0.25%

slide54

LEP2 was not beam-beam limited

LEP3/TLEP parameters -2

LEP data for 94.5 - 101 GeV consistently suggest a beam-beam limit of ~0.115 (R.Assmann, K. C.)

tlep lep3 events references
TLEP/LEP3 events & references

A. Blondel, F. Zimmermann, “A High Luminosity e+e- Collider in the LHC Tunnel to study the Higgs Boson,” arXiv:1112.2518v1, 24.12.’11

K. Oide, “SuperTRISTAN- A possibility of ring collider for Higgs factory,”

KEK Seminar, 13 February 2012

1st EuCARD LEP3 workshop, CERN, 18 June 2012

A. Blondel et al, “LEP3: A High Luminosity e+e- Collider to study the Higgs Boson,” arXiv:1208.0504, submitted to ESPG Krakow

P. Azzi et al, “Prospective Studies for LEP3 with the CMS Detector,”

arXiv:1208.1662 (2012), submitted to ESPG Krakow

2ndEuCARD LEP3 workshop, CERN, 23 October 2012

P. Janot, “A circular e+e- collider to study H(125),”PH Seminar, CERN, 30 October 2012

ICFA Higgs Factory Workshop: Linear vs Circular, FNAL, 14-16 Nov. ’12

A. Blondel, F. Zimmermann, “Future possibilities for precise studies of the X(125) Higgs candidate,” CERN Colloquium, 22 Nov. 2012

3rd TLEP3 Day, CERN, 10 January 2013

4th TLEP mini-workshop, CERN, 4-5 April 2013

https://cern.ch/accnet

https://espace.cern.ch/LEP3

sapphire lhec events references
SAPPHiRE/LHeC events & references

S. A. Bogacz, J. Ellis, L. Lusito, D. Schulte, T. Takahashi, M. Velasco, M. Zanetti,

F. Zimmermann, “SAPPHiRE: a Small Gamma-Gamma Higgs Factory,”

arXiv:1208.2827

D. Asner et al., “Higgs physics with a gamma gamma collider based on CLIC I,” Eur. Phys. J. C 28 (2003) 27 [hep-ex/0111056].

J. Abelleira Fernandez et al, “Large Hadron Electron Collider at CERN - Report on the Physics and Design Concepts for Machine and Detector,” Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics 39 Number 7 (2012) arXiv:1206.2913

YuhongZhang, “Design Concept of ag-gCollider-Based Higgs Factory Driven by Energy Recovery Linacs,” arXiv:1211.3756

E. Nissen, “Optimization of Recirculating Linacs for a Higgs Factory,” prepared for HF2012

ICFA Higgs Factory Workshop: Linear vs Circular, FNAL, 14-16 Nov. ’12

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, “Fiber lasers and amplifiers: an ultrafast performance evolution,” Applied Optics, Vol. 49, No. 25 (2010)

1stEuCARDSAPPHiRE Day, CERN, 19 February 2013

https://cern.ch/accnet

he lhc vhe lhc events references
HE-LHC &VHE-LHC events & references
  • R. Assmann, R. Bailey, O. Brüning, O. Dominguez, G. de Rijk, J.M. Jimenez, S. Myers, L. Rossi, L. Tavian, E. Todesco, F. Zimmermann, “First Thoughts on a Higher-Energy LHC,” CERN-ATS-2010-177
  • E. Todesco, F. Zimmermann (eds), “EuCARD-AccNet-EuroLumiWorkshop: The High-Energy Large Hadron Collider,”Proc. EuCARD-AccNetworkshop HE-LHC’10 , Malta, 14-16 October 2010, arXiv:1111.7188 ; CERN Yellow Report CERN-2011-003
  • HiLumi LHC WP6 HE-LHC
  • Joint Snowmass-EuCARD/AccNet-HiLumi meeting `Frontier Capabilities for Hadron Colliders 2013,‘ CERN, 21-11 February 2013

http://hilumilhc.web.cern.ch/HiLumiLHC/activities/HE-LHC/WP16/

https://cern.ch/accnet