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JCM 210 English News Reporting and Writing II

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  1. JCM 210 English News Reporting and Writing II Seminar 5 12th March 2009 Seminar 5-2009

  2. Agenda • Outstanding issues arising out of Seminar 4 • Beats Briefing (2): Who’s who in your beat • Basic Reporting: United Nations & Int’l Affairs Seminar 5-2009

  3. International Affairs Seminar 5-2009

  4. News coverage • United Nations: global policies • Regional affairs: Asia & Europe • Individual states • Korea: disarmament talk • U.S. • U.K. • Sino-U.S. relationship Seminar 5-2009

  5. Official Institutions / Treaty Bodies • United Nations 聯合國 • World Trade Organisation (WTO)世界貿易組織 • International Court of Justice 國際法庭 • International Criminal Court 國際刑事法庭 • North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) 北大西洋公約組織 • Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) 東南亞國家聯盟 Seminar 5-2009

  6. Internationally operated Non-Government Organization 國際性非政府組織 • Organization formed by people outside of government • “watchdog” of the human rights • International Committee of the Red Cross國際紅十字會 • Amnesty International 國際特赦組織 • World Economic Forum 世經濟論壇 • Oxfam 世界宣明會 Seminar 5-2009

  7. What is a “State”? • Permanent population (固定人口) • Defined territory(明確領土) • Government(政府) • Capacity to enter into relations with the other states(能與其他國家建交) Seminar 5-2009

  8. International relation • State policy 國家政策 • Diplomatic relationship外交關係 • International law 國際法 • International Treaty and Convention 國際條約及公約 Seminar 5-2009

  9. State Policy on diplomacy • Recognition of a nation 承認另一個國家 • Trade dispute 貿易糾紛 • Territorial and frontier disputes 領土及邊界糾紛 • Declaration of war 宣戰 Seminar 5-2009

  10. Law and order in respect of int’l relation Seminar 5-2009

  11. International Law • International conventions 國際公約 • International custom 國際慣例 • General principles of law 各國適用的一般法律原則 • Judicial decisions 司法判例 • Academic publication 學術著作 Seminar 5-2009

  12. International conventions (hard law) • Conventions/covenants 公約 • Treaty 條約 • Only binds the parties to the convention • Article 2(1)(a) Vienna Convention of the Law of Treaties 1969 (維也納公約) • International agreement between states • In written form; and • Governed by international law Seminar 5-2009

  13. Difference b/w treaty and convention 條約與公約的分別 B C D convention A B A Multi-lateral Convention United Nation Charter International Covenants on Civil and Political Rights Bi-lateral /multi-lateral Treaty Sino-British Joint Declaration 中英聯合聲明 Seminar 5-2009

  14. Treaties / Conventions making process • Negotiation • A treaty is adopted • States agree to enter into a treaty and sign it • Signing a treaty • Official representative of a State signs the treaty • Ratifying (追認) a treaty • Approval by the domestic legislature • A treaty comes into force Seminar 5-2009

  15. Int’l custom/customary int’l law (soft law) • Two elements • State practice 各國重覆類似行為 • Most states conduct themselves in the same way on the same issue over a period of time • Opinion juris 法律確信 • They conduct themselves that way because they feel they are legally obliged to do so No deportation (遞解出境) of a person to a place where he would be subjected to death penalty or torture Seminar 5-2009

  16. Lai Changxing 賴昌星 The fugitive of Yuan Hua’s case遠華集團走私案逃犯 Seminar 5-2009

  17. General principles of law • Rules and principles common to all legal systems (各國均適用的原則) • Right of persons to go to court to settle disputes • Right to be heard by a court before judgment is pronounced • Principle of equity (公平原則) • Fairness and justice 公平及公義 • Doctrine of acquiescence (容忍) in the case of territory delimitation (領土劃分) Seminar 5-2009

  18. Judicial Decisions • International Court of Justice (ICJ)海牙國際法庭 • It binds the parties to the case only • In practice, the Court will follow its earlier decisions on similar issue • Informal doctrine of stare decisis • Other tribunals • European Court of Human Rights 歐洲人權法庭 • Binding on the parties only • But strong persuasive force to others in similar human rights issue Seminar 5-2009

  19. Other sources? • Resolution (決議) of international organisation • The General Assembly (全體大會) of the United Nations • Not binding • States are not legally obliged to follow the conduct stipulated by the GA resolution • Declaration (宣言) of int’l organisations Seminar 5-2009

  20. United Nations Seminar 5-2009

  21. United Nations Charter聯合國憲章 • Article 1 Purposes of UN • Maintain int’l peace 國際和平 and security國際安全 • Take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats (威脅) to the peace • Adjustment or settlement (解決) of int’l disputes (國際糾紛) or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace Seminar 5-2009

  22. Develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principles of • Equal rights; and • Self-determination 自決 • Achieve int’l co-operation in • solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural or humanitarian (人道) character and • promoting respect for human rights for all w/t distinction as to race, sex, language or religion Seminar 5-2009

  23. Article 2 Members should act on the following principles: • The sovereign equality of all its Members (各成員國主權平等) • Shall fulfil their obligations in good faith (以誠信履行成員國的義務) • Settle their int’l disputes by peaceful means (以和平解決紛爭) • Refrain from the threat or use of force against territorial integrity or political independence of any State (不威脅或以武力損害任何國家領土完整或政治獨立性) Seminar 5-2009

  24. Give the UN every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the Charter (協助聯合國執行根據憲章作出的行動) • Peacekeeping Troops 維持和平部隊 • Economic sanction 經濟制裁 • Ensure non-member States to act in accordance with the above Principles so far as may be necessary for the maintenance of int’l peace and security 確保其他非成員國一同遵守聯合國維持國際和平和安全的責任 Seminar 5-2009

  25. The Organs of the United Nations Seminar 5-2009

  26. Principal Organs Economic & Social Council Secretariat Trusteeship Council Security Council General Assembly 托管理事會 經濟及社會理事會 秘書處 安全理事會 全體大會 Seminar 5-2009

  27. Security Council Link • 15 members • 5 Permanent members 常任理事國 • PRC, France, UK, Russian Federation, United Nations • Great Powers 超級大國 • Right to final vote 最後投票權 • 10 non-permanent members 非常任理事國 • 5 Afro-Asian, 2 from Latin-American, 1 from Eastern Europe, 2 from Western Europe and other States • Japan, Mexico, Turkey, Vietnam, Austria, Costa Rica • 2 years’ term • The Presidency of the Security Council (安理會主席) is held in turn (輪任) by the members of the Security Council in the English alphabetical order of their names. Each President holds office for one calendar month. Seminar 5-2009

  28. Powers and functions of SC • to maintain international peace and security • to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments (軍備) • to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression (侵略行為) and to recommend what action should be taken • to call on Members to apply economic sanctions (經濟制裁) and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression • to take military action (軍事行動) against an aggressor • all Members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council. Seminar 5-2009

  29. Subsidiary bodies of SC • Peacekeeping Operation and Missions 聯合國維持和平行動 • Int’l Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia 前南斯拉夫問題國際法庭 • Int’l Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda 盧旺達問題國際刑事法庭 • Genocide 種族清洗 • War crime 戰爭罪行 Seminar 5-2009

  30. General Assembly 聯合國大會Link • Plenary organ comprising all Member States • Article 10 UN Charter • Discuss any questions or matters within the scope of the Charter Seminar 5-2009

  31. How to be a member? • Article 4 UN Charter • Open to all other peace-loving States which accept the obligations contained in the Charter and will carry out their obligations • Decision of the GA upon the recommendation of the SC Seminar 5-2009

  32. Republic of China (Taiwan) Seminar 5-2009

  33. GA Resolution • By voting • Important decision making • Approval of important treaties and conventions • Generally no legally binding effect on the Members • Exception: admission of new membership • But could become an evidence of int’l law • If all states acting in the same way and do believe that they are obliged to do so  customary int’l law Seminar 5-2009

  34. GA 57/228 18 Dec 2002The Prosecution Under Cambodian Law Of Crimes Committed During The Period Of Democratic Kampuchea (聯合國決議案:對紅色高棉進行檢控) • Khmer Rouge赤柬also known as Party of Democratic Kampuchea柬埔寨共產黨 • Alleged to have killed 1,7 millions people b/w 1975-1990 • Leadership: Pol Pot (波尔布特) • Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia柬埔寨法院特別法庭 • To trial senior leader of Democratic Kampuchea • 3 Cambodian Judges • 2 International Judges Seminar 5-2009

  35. Subsidiary bodies under GA • Human Rights Council (since 2006)聯合國人權理事會 • United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)聯合國兒童基金 • Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 聯合國難民事務公署 • Human rights treaties bodies • Human Rights Committee • since 1976 (for International Covenants for Civil & Political Rights) Seminar 5-2009

  36. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) • 54 members • Article 62 UN Charter • Make studies and reports with respect to international economic, social, cultural, educational, health and related matters • Promoting human rights and fundamental freedoms for all • Article 66 • To assist the Security Council Seminar 5-2009

  37. Subsidiary bodies • Committee on Economic, Social & Cultural Rights • Specialized Agencies • International Labour Organization 國際勞工組織 • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 聯合國教科文組織 • World Bank Group • International Monetary Fund (IMF)國際貨幣基金 • World Health Organization (WHO)世界衛生組織 Seminar 5-2009

  38. The Secretariat Link • Secretary-General 秘書長 • Appointed by GA • Five-year term • Ban Ki-moon (潘基文) of the Republic of Korea • The 8th SG of the UN Seminar 5-2009

  39. CEO of the UN • Organization of the meetings • Draft the agenda • Provide staff and facilities • Prepare report • Prepare annual budget for the UN • Power to bring matters to the attention of the SC for investigation Seminar 5-2009

  40. Organization of the UN system • http://www.un.org/aboutun/chart_en.pdf Seminar 5-2009

  41. The use of force and arm conflict 武力與軍事衝突 Seminar 5-2009

  42. Article 2 UN Charter • All members must settle their disputes by peaceful means • Shall refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State • “No war” provision Seminar 5-2009

  43. GA Resolution • GAR 2131(1965): Prohibition of Intervention • Armed intervention (軍事介入) and all other forms of interference (干預) are to be condemned (譴責) • GAR 2625 (1970): General Principles of Int’l Law • Threat or use of force is a violation of international law Seminar 5-2009

  44. The right of self-defence • Legitimate self-defence is allowed (int’l custom) • Necessity of self-defence • The act done in self-defence must not be unreasonable and the force used must be proportionate to the harm threatened • Article 52 UN Charter • Right to individual or collective self-defence against armed attack until the SC has taken the measures necessary to maintain int’l peace and security Seminar 5-2009

  45. Collective self-defence • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (北大西洋公約組織)(NATO) • Organization for collective self-defence under Article 51 Seminar 5-2009

  46. Self-determination 自決 Seminar 5-2009

  47. Right to self-determination • Collective right open to exercise by peoples • The right of self-determination in respect of those people in Eastern Europe following the 1st World War • The disintegration of the overseas empires of the colonial powers following the 2nd World War Seminar 5-2009

  48. GA Resolutions • GAR 1514/1960: The Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Territories and Peoples • GAR 2625/1970 • Emergence as a sovereign independent State • Free association with an independent State • Integration with an independent State Seminar 5-2009

  49. Cases other than colonies • The early 1970’s view • UN has never accepted the principle of secession of a part of a Member State • Need to be reassessed due to the development of human rights? • Right to go away from dictatorship? Seminar 5-2009

  50. THE END Seminar 5-2009