1 / 28

Nutrition - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Nutrition . Chapter 49-1 and Chapter 3. Unit 2 Lecture 4. Topic: Introduction to Organic Chemistry and Nutrition Covers: Chapter 3, pages 52 – 54 Chapter 49, page 977. All compounds can be classified in two broad 
categories: ORGANIC and INORGANIC compounds . Organic C ompounds

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Nutrition' - abena

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript


Chapter 49-1 and

Chapter 3

Unit 2 lecture 4
Unit 2Lecture 4

  • Topic:

    • Introduction to Organic Chemistry and Nutrition

  • Covers:

    • Chapter 3, pages 52 – 54

    • Chapter 49, page 977


  • All compounds can be classified in two broad 
categories: ORGANIC and INORGANIC compounds.

  • Organic Compounds

    • Molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

    • The chemistry of carbon is considered to be “The chemistry of life”.

    • In organic compounds, carbon atom is usually bonded to another carbon, hydrogen or oxygen

    • Carbon is the “backbone” of organic compounds




    • MONOMER- a single organic molecule

      • Example: Glucose (blood sugar)

    • POLYMER- two or more monomers together

      • Example: Sucrose

    • MACROMOLECULE- large organic molecule, made up of many polymers

      • Examples: Glycogen, Starch

Six basic food ingredients
Six Basic Food Ingredients

  • All of the foods in the would contain at least one of six basic ingredients, also known as nutrients:

    • Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water

  • Four of these nutrients are organic compounds

    • Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins

  • Two of these nutrients are inorganic compounds

    • Minerals, water

    • These do not contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

Unit 4 lecture 5
Unit 4Lecture 5

  • Topics:

    • Carbohydrates and Lipids (Fats)

  • Covers:

    • Chapter 3, page 55 – 56 and 58 – 59

    • Chapter 49, page 977 – 979


  • Made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

  • Function: Gives the body a quick energy source

    • Easy for the body to break down carbs and convert into ATP


    • MONOMERof carbohydrate, aka Simple Sugar


      • Glucose(blood sugar)

      • Fructose(found in fruits, sweetest)

      • Galactose(found in milk)

Isomers molecules with same chemical formula but different structure
Isomers – Molecules with same chemical formula but different structure



    • 2 Monosaccharides combine to form a DISACCHARIDE, aka Double Sugar

    • EXAMPLE:

      • Sucrose(table sugar) = Fructose + Glucose

      • Maltose(malt sugar) = Glucose + Glucose

      • Lactose(milk sugar) = Glucose + Galactose



    • Many Monosaccharides combine to form a POLYSACCHARIDE


      • Glycogen- many molecules of glucose

        • How animals store glucose, good source of energy

        • Stored in our liver and muscles

      • Starch- many molecules of glucose

        • How plants store glucose

      • Cellulose- a form of starch, makes up the rigid cell wall

        • We cannot digest cellulose, but it does stimulate smooth muscle contractions within the digestive system


  • Lipids

    • Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen

    • Large molecules, long carbon “tail”

    • Function:

      • Used to build cell membranes, protect organs and provide insulation

      • Gives the body an energy storage

        • Lipids don't dissolve in water (NONPOLAR)

        • Carbs that aren't converted into ATP will be stored as lipids


  • Lipids are necessary to all living organisms

  • Types of Lipids

    • 1. Saturated Fats

      • Can increase levels of bad cholesterol and blood cholesterol (bad) and decreases levels of good cholesterol

      • Saturated fatty acids are usually solid at room temp

      • EXAMPLES: Butter, Animal fat, Lard, Shortening


  • Types of Lipids

    • 2. Unsaturated Fats

      • Can decrease levels of bad cholesterol and blood cholesterol

      • Can increase levels of good cholesterol

      • Unsaturated fatty acids are usually liquid at room temp.

      • EXAMPLES:Olive oil, Plant seeds and fruits


  • Some Types of Lipids:

    • 3. Phospholipid

      • Make up the cell membrane

    • 4.Wax

      • Forms a waterproof, protective coating

      • Examples: ear wax, bees' wax, surface of plants

Unit 4 lecture 6
Unit 4Lecture 6

  • Topics:

    • Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals, Water

  • Covers:

    • Chapter 3, pages 56 – 57

    • Chapter 49, pages 977 – 982


  • Proteins

    • Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen

    • Functions/Types of Proteins:

      • Major source of structural material in the body

      • Make up skin and muscles of animals

      • Help body to grow and repair damaged tissue

      • Some types of proteins: hormones, insulin, antibodies, enzymes, hair, skin pigment


  • Proteins

    • Proteins are macromolecules

      • Made up of monomers known as AMINO ACIDS

      • 20 different kinds of amino acids

        • Every amino acid has the same basic structure EXCEPT for one part, known as the "R group”

        • Each amino acid has a different R group

      • Our body can't produce all 20 amino acids, although we need all 20 to function

      • We get these 8 (or 10 for children) essential amino acids from our diet



    • ENZYMESare proteins with a special job

      • Name of enzyme usually ends in –ase (Ex: Sucrase)

    • CATALYST- speed up the reactions in the body by lowering the activation energy

    • Enzyme reactions depend on the physical fit between the enzyme and the substrate



    • Enzyme and substrate have a specific form to allow them to fit together (like a lock and key)

    • After the reaction is complete, the enzyme’s original shape returns

      • This allows enzymes to be used numerous times


  • Proteins

    • Proteins are very large molecules made up of a long chain of amino acids

      • Order and type of amino acids is different for each type of protein

        • This gives each type of protein a different shape

      • If the protein changes its form, it changes the function


      • Egg whites,  Enzymes

      • The form of proteins can change because of temperature,  amino acid sequence, incorrect folding



    • Organic compound, nutrient, necessary for all living organisms

    • Function: work as coenzymes

      • Def: molecule that helps enzymes to be more efficient

    • Can be used many times, just like enzymes

      • This is why we only need a small amount of daily vitamins

    • Our body can't make most vitamins

    • Need to get vitamins from another source (food, supplements)

    • Vitamins can be water or fat soluble

    • If intake too many vitamins:

      • Water soluble - released in urine

      • Fat soluble - build up in body, can be fatal



    • Inorganic compound, nutrient, necessary for all living organisms

    • Function: Provide necessary material needed for cells to function properly

    • Our body can't make minerals

    • Need to get minerals from another source (food, supplements)



    • Inorganic molecule, nutrient, necessary to maintain life

    • Over half of your body weight is from water!

    • Function:

      • Regulate body temperature

      • Dissolves substances (salts, sugars, wastes)

      • Transportation of substances through cells and whole body

    • Need to intake as much water (or more) than we lose during the day

      • If losing too much water, cells won’t be able to function

        • Known as Dehydration