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AN INTRODUCTION TO. MUSCULAR FITNESS. Health Components. Muscular strength includes two health related components of fitness: Muscular strength Muscular endurance. Muscle Map— see your hand-out A good program works all muscle groups. 11 Major Muscles (or muscle groups) Biceps

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an introduction to


health components
Health Components
  • Muscular strength includes two health related components of fitness:
  • Muscular strength
  • Muscular endurance
muscle map see your hand out a good program works all muscle groups
Muscle Map—see your hand-outA good program works all muscle groups.

11 Major Muscles

(or muscle groups)

  • Biceps
  • Pectoralis major (pecs/chest)
  • Triceps
  • Rectus abdominus (abs)
  • Quadriceps
  • Deltoids
  • Trapezius (traps)
  • Latissimusdorsi (lats)
  • Gluteals
  • Hamstrings
  • Gastrocnemius & soleus (calves)
the look
The “Look”
  • People with more muscle look trimmer because muscle is more dense than fat. One pound of muscle takes up less space than one pound of fat.
  • Toned muscles do not allow protruding areas (abdomen)
  • Good posture makes people look better.
muscle fibre
Muscle Fibre
  • Skeletal muscle is attached to bone by tendons. When muscles contract (shorten) they produce movement.
  • Skeletal muscle is made up of fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibres.
  • Heredity determines the number of fast-twitch and slow twitch fibres you have.
  • A ligament attaches from a bone to a bone. Helps to secure bone joints
endurance vs strength
Endurance vs Strength
  • Strength training uses heavy weights and low repetitions – this builds bulk and strength ie. Bench press 120lbs for 4 - 6 reps x 3 sets
  • Endurance uses less weight and more repetitions ie. Bench press 50 lbs for 12 – 15 reps x 3 sets
  • Having more muscle burns more energy. When we exercise our muscles they require more energy and our body gets used to this process. Our body’s metabolism helps control the use of energy required by our muscles.
myths about weight training
Myths About Weight Training
  • Weight training makes you muscle-bound and inflexible.
  • Weight training is unfeminine for women.
  • Muscle will turn to fat if you stop working out.
  • I don’t want to become “too ripped”—it will look gross!
the two types of fibers
The Two Types of Fibers
  • Slow-twitch: these fibers contract slowly but have the ability to continue contacting for long periods of time. Because they do not tire easily, these fibers are best suited for endurance and aerobic activities.
  • Fast-Twitch: these fibers contract quickly allowing explosive muscular contractions and lend themselves to anaerobic activities.

(cross country runners)


Methods For Developing Muscular FitnessApply the Principle of Overload(skeletal muscle becomes stronger when it works harder than it is accustomed to working)

Three Types of Exercises

  • Isometric
  • Isotonic
  • Isokinetic
safety when weight lifting
Safety when Weight lifting

Use a spotter

Don’t lift more than you can handle

Perform exercises slowly and correctly

Breathe in when returning and exhale on exertion.

  • In isometric exercise, you contract your muscles but they do not change their length. There is no movement.
  • Strength is developed, but only at the position the exercise is performed.
  • Will not improve muscular endurance or flexibility.
  • Isotonic exercises are those in which the muscle lengthens and shortens through its full range of motion while lowering and raising a resistance. Resistance can be in the form of weights, or your own body weight. **Limited by the capacity of your limb at the weakest joint position.**
  • Isotonic exercises are excellent muscular fitness developers.
  • Isokinetic exercises use specially designed machines to overcome the disadvantages of isometric and isotonic exercises.
  • They allow you to overload the muscle with maximum resistance through an entire range of motion at a constant speed.
  • There are no “true” isokinetic machines!
apply the training principles
Apply The Training Principles
  • Overload your muscles!
  • F—muscles require about 48 hours to grow and recover. You can alternate muscle groups each day.
  • I—The amount of weight you lift (resistance) For muscular strength use 60-90% of your maximum. For muscular endurance use 30-50% of your maximum.
overload continued
Overload continued
  • T—the number of times the exercise is performed. A repetition is the completion of one full range movement of the body part. A group of repetitions is called a set. Usually you do 3-4 sets of each exercise with a two minute rest interval between each set.
  • Muscular endurance: 12-20 reps
  • Muscular strength: 4-8 reps
Eventually you will be asked to create your own weight training circuit. More information will follow.
  • Begin to think about the type of program you would want to use and your specific needs.
creatine steroids
Creatine / Steroids
  • Creatine is a chemical produced naturally by the amino acids in the body. When taken in excessive amounts it helps to repair muscle tissue and increases the size and strength of muscles.
  • Steroids – are synthetically made chemicals that also increase the size and strength of muscles.
possible side effects of steroid use
Possible Side Effects of Steroid Use
  • Liver cancer
  • Kidney damage
  • Increased risk of heart disease
  • Stunted growth
  • Mood swings
  • Acne
  • Increased irritability and aggression