Splash Screen. Globes and Maps Map Projections Location Hemispheres Parts of a Map Using Scale Types of Maps Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams. Handbook Menu. Globes and Maps. What is a Globe?.
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Parts of a Map
Types of Maps
Graphs, Charts, and DiagramsHandbook Menu
What is a Globe?
A globe is a round model of the Earth that shows its shape, landforms, and directions as they truly relate to one another.Globes and Maps
What is a Map?
A map is a flat drawing of all or part of the Earth’s surface. Cartographers, or mapmakers, use mathematical formulas to transfer information from the round globe to a flat map.Globes and Maps
Globes and Maps
Globes and maps serve different purposes, and each has advantages and disadvantages.Globes and Maps
When the Earth’s surface is flattened on a map, big gaps open up. Mapmakers stretch parts of the Earth to show either the correct shapes of places or their correct sizes. Mapmakers have developed different projections, or ways of showing the Earth on a flat piece of paper.Map Projections
Goode’s Interrupted Equal-Area Projection
A map with this projection shows continents close to their true shapes and sizes. This projection is helpful to compare land area among continents.Map Projections
The Robinson projection has minor distortions. Continents and oceans are close to their sizes and shapes, but the North and South Poles appear flattened.Map Projections
The Mercator projection shows land shapes fairly accurately but not size or distance. Areas that are located far from the Equator are quite distorted. The Mercator projection shows true directions, however, making it useful for sea travel.Map Projections
Winkel Tripel Projection
This projection gives a good overall view of the continents’ shapes and sizes. Land areas are not as distorted near the poles as they are in the Robinson projection.Map Projections
To locate places on Earth, geographers use a system of imaginary lines that crisscross the globe. These lines are called latitude and longitude.Location
A place’s exact location can be identified when you use both latitude and longitude. For example, Tokyo, Japan, is 36°N latitude and 140°E longitude.Location
The Equator divides the Earth into Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Everything north of the Equator is in the Northern Hemisphere. Everything south of the Equator is in the Southern Hemisphere.Hemispheres
The Prime Meridian divides the Earth into Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Everything east of the Prime Meridian for 180 degrees is in the Eastern Hemisphere. Everything west of the Prime Meridian for 180 degrees is in the Western Hemisphere.Hemispheres
All maps are drawn to a certain scale.The scale of a map is the size of the map compared to the size of the actual land surface. Thus, the scale of a map varies with the size of the area shown.Using Scale
A small-scale map, like this political map of Mexico, shows a large land area but little detail.Using Scale
A large-scale map, like this map of Mexico City, shows a small land area with a great amount of detail.Using Scale
How Do I Use a Scale Bar?
Use the scale bar to find actual distances on a map. The scale bar tells you how many kilometers or miles are represented in that length. You can use a ruler, then, to calculate distances based on the scale bar’s length.
About ½ an inch equals 300 miles. A little more than ½ a centimeter is equal to 300 kilometers.Using Scale
General Purpose Maps
Maps are amazingly useful tools. You can use them to show information and to make connections between seemingly unrelated topics. Geographers use many different types of maps. Maps that show a wide range of information about an area are called general purposemaps. Two of the most common general purpose maps are physical maps and political maps.Types of Maps
Physical maps call out landforms and water features. The map key explains what each color and symbol stands for.Types of Maps
Political maps show the names and political boundaries of countries, along with human-made features such as cities or transportation routes.Types of Maps
Special Purpose Maps
Some maps are made to present specific types of information. These are called thematic or special purpose maps. These maps usually show specific topics in detail. Special purpose maps may include information about
Historical maps show events that occurred in a region over time. In the map to the right, you can see where Europeans settled in the North America continent in the past.Types of Maps
A contour map has contour lines—one line for each major level of elevation. All the land at the same elevation is connected by a line. These lines usually form circles or ovals—one inside the other. If contour lines are close together, the surface is steep. If the lines are spread apart, the land is flat or rises gradually.Types of Maps
Vegetation maps are special purpose maps that show the different types of plants that are found in a region.Types of Maps
Graphs present and summarize information visually. Each part of a graph provides useful information. To read a graph, follow these steps:
Graphs that use bars or wide lines to compare data visually are called bar graphs.Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams
You can use circle graphs when you want to show how the whole of something is divided into its parts. Because of their shape, circle graphs are often called pie graphs. Each slide represents a part or percentage of the whole pie. The whole graph generally totals 100 percent.Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams
Line graphs help show changes over a period of time. The amounts being measured are plotted on the grid above each year and then are connected by a line.Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams
Charts present related facts and numbers in an organized way. They arrange data, especially numbers, in rows and columns for easy reference.Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams
Diagrams are drawings that show steps in a process, point out the parts of an object, or explain how something works.Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams
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