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  1. Cardiovascular System

  2. Answer on notes - use text pages304-305 • What is “blood loading”? • Why should expectant mothers (or mothers hoping to get pregnant) take folic acid? • What’s your blood type?

  3. I. Components of the Cardiovascular System • Blood • Heart • Blood Vessels

  4. Blood Intro Movie

  5. I. Functions of blood 3 General functions: Transportation, Regulation, protection

  6. A. Transportation • Oxygen (From where to where) • Carbon dioxide (From where to where) • Nutrients (From where to where) • liquid wastes (From where to where) • Hormones (From where to where) • Enzymes • Heat (From where to where)

  7. B. Regulation • pH levels How? • Maintained by the use of buffers, amino acids and proteins. • pH range should be 7.35-7.45Why must pH be regulated? • narrow pH range to accommodate enzyme actions.

  8. B. Regulation • Body Temperature How? • By controlling blood flow to the surface of the skin as well as to & from the extremities. • Normal temperature range 98.6°F and 100.4°F in the blood stream. • maximum 112-114°F • minimum 70-75°F • If temperature gets too high the enzymes start to break down therefore body chemistry slows or stops and you die.

  9. B. Regulation • Water content in your cells (viscosity) • Cells are usually 99.1% water.

  10. C. Protection • Against toxins, foreign microbes and substances. • Fluid loss from broken blood vessels blood clotting (coagulation.)

  11. II. Blood Volume • Males = 5-6 liters (10-12 pints) • Females = 4-5 liters(8-10 pints)

  12. III. Blood Composition • 55% Plasma • 45% Formed elements (cells or solids)

  13. IV. Plasma • 90% water • 7% Proteins • Albumins (60%) - give viscosity and regulates osmotic pressure. • Globulins (36%) - includes antibody proteins. • Fibrinogen (4%) - inactive clotting protein.

  14. C. 2% Other solutes (trace) • Nonprotein nitrogen substances: urea, uric acid, creatinine, ammonia, and salts • Food substances: amino acids, fatty acids and sugars • Regulatory substances: Enzymes and hormones • Respiratory gases - dissolved oxygen and CO2 • 77% of CO2 is carried this wayCO2 + H2O —> H2CO3 ⇔ H+ + HCO3- • Electrolytes - inorganic salts of plasma. (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, PO4-, SO4-, HCO3-) • Maintains osmotic pressure, & pH.

  15. BLOOD INTRO GUIDE • RBC, WBC and platlets • 47% • Plasma 4a. Glucose, amino acids, lipids 4b. CO2 O2, 4c. Calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, carbonic acid

  16. 4d. Urea, creatine, uric acid, bilirubin 4e. FSH, cortisol – any endocrine hormone 4f. Albumin and globulins • Soluble because plasma is a liquid 6a. Gamma globulins 6b. Fribinogen 6c. Albumin 6d. Alpha and beta globulins

  17. 11.2 • Bone marrow, erythopoietin • Low • Inhibits • Liver, spleen • Hemoglobin • Globular proteins, heme 7a. Amino acid components recycled to make new proteins 7b. Recycled to make new blood cells 7c. Converted to bilirubin and excreted in bile

  18. Blood Solids

  19. Hemopoiesis CHAPTER 12

  20. A. Hematocrit • Percentage of blood occupied by cells • female normal range • 38 - 46% (average of 42%) • male normal range • 40 - 54% (average of 46%) • Anemia • not enough RBCs or not enough hemoglobin • Polycythemia • too many RBCs (over 65%) • dehydration, tissue hypoxia, blood doping in athletes

  21. B. Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells; RBCs) • Function - transport oxygen (98%) and CO2 (23%) • Structure • Biconcave disks to maximize surface area • RBC is 7.7 microns in diameter • 280 million molecules of hemoglobin per RBC. • Each hemoglobin is composed of 4 protein subunits, each with one heme group located in the center • Iron, of the heme group, is binding site for CO2 and O2

  22. Hemoglobin

  23. RBC Structure (con’t) • RBCs have no nucleus and lack most cellular organelles • RBCs can’t reproduce, only live for 100-120 days • RBCs are made in the bone marrow at a rate of 2 million/sec. • Dead RBCs are recycled in liver and spleen. • The average male has 5.4 million RBCs/mm3, and the average female has 4.8 million RBCs/mm3.

  24. C. Erythropoeisis • Negative feedback system of RBC production • Prolonged oxygen deficiency stimulates kidney and liver to release erythropoietin. • Hormone circulates to red bone marrow which is stimulated to make more RBC’s.

  25. What do you notice about this baby’s appearance?

  26. Recycling of Hemoglobin Components

  27. Blood Types

  28. Blood Type Movie • What are the four distinct blood groups discovered by Karl Landsteiner? • How often are blood transfusions performed?

  29. General Info • Blood type is genetically determined. • There are many surface proteins on RBCs, but there are three commonly used for blood typing: “A”, “B” and Rhesus surface proteins. • Surface proteins are called agglutinogens. • Antibodies for these surface proteins are called agglutinins.

  30. Blood Type Proteins

  31. ABO blood groups - HW • Proteins on the surface of RBC are called ANTIGENS. • The body makes ANTIBODIES that react with foreign antigens.

  32. 3. Fill in chart

  33. a.Donor’s antibodies amount = dilute, Recipient’s antibodies amount = concentrated b. Therefore, the antibodies of the recipient react with the RBCs of the donor. c.What will happen? Agglutination, clogging of vessels and perhaps death

  34. Predict the outcome: • B gives to A • B gives to AB • O gives to A

  35. Rh factor • First discovered in Rhesus monkeys. • It was another RBC surface protein. • What does Rh+ mean? • Rh protein present on RBCs. • No agglutinins for Rh agglutinogens. • What does Rh- mean? • Rh protein absent on RBCs. • Has the capacity to produce Rh agglutinins

  36. Exercise 11.7 – Rh and pregnancy (erythroblastosis fetalis) • Antigen D 1a. Rh+ 1b. Rh- • Rh+ cells 2a. Foreign to 2b.antibodies • Can 3a. Agglutinate 3b. Does not • Can • Agglutination of blood (possible death of fetus)

  37. The Problem w/Rh factor & Pregnancy (erythroblastosis fetalis) • Occurs in women that are Rh- and have Rh+ baby. • During pregnancy some of the fetal blood cells migrate back into the mother’s circulation. • Usually the RBCs and other large blood components are too large to pass through the placenta. • When the fetal blood mixes with the mothers, the mother starts to make agglutinins for the Rh agglutinogen. • However, the baby is born before enough agglutinins migrate back into the fetus, so baby is unaffected.

  38. The Problem with Rh factor and Pregnancy • If the next baby is Rh+, the mother will start producing large numbers of agglutinins and these will attack the fetal blood, destroying RBCs. • If the baby is Rh- it has no proteins to react with the mothers antibodies. • To prevent the problem, when a Rh- mother has a Rh+ baby, they give her a RHO GAM (anti-Rh gamma 2-globulin agglutinin) shot. • This shot tie up the agglutinogens so they cannot be recognized by the mothers immune system, therefore she does not produce the anti-Rh agglutinins.

  39. Blood Transfusions • What blood type can “A” person receive? • What blood type can “B” person receive? • What blood type can “AB” person receive? • What blood type can “O” person receive? • What blood type is a universal donor? • What blood type is a universal recipient?


  41. C. White Blood Cells • Granulocytes= neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils • Agranulocytes = monocytes and lymphocytes • Granulocytes and monocytes are produced by bone marrow when stimulated by colony stimulating factors

  42. 4. Lymphocytes from bone marrow are • T Cells • B Cells • NK Cells (Natural Killer Cells)

  43. 4. Name the lymphocytes that: • Finish development in thymus = T cells • Immune response when foreign antigen is present = T cells and B cells • Function without previous exposure = NK Cells

  44. T cells develop into 4 functionally different cells that look the same. • CHART • Neutrophils • Eosinophils • Basophils • Monocytes • Lymphocytes (B and T cells) • Natural Killer Cells

  45. D. Leucocytes (WBCs) • Function - protection by phagocytosis or antibody production and chemical warfare. • Structure • They have nuclei and don’t contain hemoglobin. • 5-9 thousand WBCs/mm3 • @ 10-19 microns in diameter depending on type.

  46. 3. Two basic groups of leucocytes: • Granular leucocytes • finish development in the bone marrow • Contain small granules and have encapsulated nuclei (see chapter 12) • Phagocytic & release digestive enzymes.

  47. iv. 3 kinds of granular leucocytes: • Neutrophils- 60-70% of all WBC-high neutrophil count indicates an acute infection, especially bacterial. • Eosinophils- 2-4% of all WBCs-produces antihistamine so a high eosinophil count indicates an allergic reaction. • Basophils- 1% of all WBCs produces heparin, histamine, and serotonin so it is also involved in the allergic reaction.

  48. b. Agranular leucocytes • Finish development in the lymphatic system. • Produce antibodies and are phagocytic.