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Answer on notes - use text pages304-305 • What is “blood loading”? • Why should expectant mothers (or mothers hoping to get pregnant) take folic acid? • What’s your blood type?
I. Components of the Cardiovascular System • Blood • Heart • Blood Vessels
I. Functions of blood 3 General functions: Transportation, Regulation, protection
A. Transportation • Oxygen (From where to where) • Carbon dioxide (From where to where) • Nutrients (From where to where) • liquid wastes (From where to where) • Hormones (From where to where) • Enzymes • Heat (From where to where)
B. Regulation • pH levels How? • Maintained by the use of buffers, amino acids and proteins. • pH range should be 7.35-7.45Why must pH be regulated? • narrow pH range to accommodate enzyme actions.
B. Regulation • Body Temperature How? • By controlling blood flow to the surface of the skin as well as to & from the extremities. • Normal temperature range 98.6°F and 100.4°F in the blood stream. • maximum 112-114°F • minimum 70-75°F • If temperature gets too high the enzymes start to break down therefore body chemistry slows or stops and you die.
B. Regulation • Water content in your cells (viscosity) • Cells are usually 99.1% water.
C. Protection • Against toxins, foreign microbes and substances. • Fluid loss from broken blood vessels blood clotting (coagulation.)
II. Blood Volume • Males = 5-6 liters (10-12 pints) • Females = 4-5 liters(8-10 pints)
III. Blood Composition • 55% Plasma • 45% Formed elements (cells or solids)
IV. Plasma • 90% water • 7% Proteins • Albumins (60%) - give viscosity and regulates osmotic pressure. • Globulins (36%) - includes antibody proteins. • Fibrinogen (4%) - inactive clotting protein.
C. 2% Other solutes (trace) • Nonprotein nitrogen substances: urea, uric acid, creatinine, ammonia, and salts • Food substances: amino acids, fatty acids and sugars • Regulatory substances: Enzymes and hormones • Respiratory gases - dissolved oxygen and CO2 • 77% of CO2 is carried this wayCO2 + H2O —> H2CO3 ⇔ H+ + HCO3- • Electrolytes - inorganic salts of plasma. (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, PO4-, SO4-, HCO3-) • Maintains osmotic pressure, & pH.
BLOOD INTRO GUIDE • RBC, WBC and platlets • 47% • Plasma 4a. Glucose, amino acids, lipids 4b. CO2 O2, 4c. Calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, carbonic acid
4d. Urea, creatine, uric acid, bilirubin 4e. FSH, cortisol – any endocrine hormone 4f. Albumin and globulins • Soluble because plasma is a liquid 6a. Gamma globulins 6b. Fribinogen 6c. Albumin 6d. Alpha and beta globulins
11.2 • Bone marrow, erythopoietin • Low • Inhibits • Liver, spleen • Hemoglobin • Globular proteins, heme 7a. Amino acid components recycled to make new proteins 7b. Recycled to make new blood cells 7c. Converted to bilirubin and excreted in bile
A. Hematocrit • Percentage of blood occupied by cells • female normal range • 38 - 46% (average of 42%) • male normal range • 40 - 54% (average of 46%) • Anemia • not enough RBCs or not enough hemoglobin • Polycythemia • too many RBCs (over 65%) • dehydration, tissue hypoxia, blood doping in athletes
B. Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells; RBCs) • Function - transport oxygen (98%) and CO2 (23%) • Structure • Biconcave disks to maximize surface area • RBC is 7.7 microns in diameter • 280 million molecules of hemoglobin per RBC. • Each hemoglobin is composed of 4 protein subunits, each with one heme group located in the center • Iron, of the heme group, is binding site for CO2 and O2
RBC Structure (con’t) • RBCs have no nucleus and lack most cellular organelles • RBCs can’t reproduce, only live for 100-120 days • RBCs are made in the bone marrow at a rate of 2 million/sec. • Dead RBCs are recycled in liver and spleen. • The average male has 5.4 million RBCs/mm3, and the average female has 4.8 million RBCs/mm3.
C. Erythropoeisis • Negative feedback system of RBC production • Prolonged oxygen deficiency stimulates kidney and liver to release erythropoietin. • Hormone circulates to red bone marrow which is stimulated to make more RBC’s.
Blood Type Movie • What are the four distinct blood groups discovered by Karl Landsteiner? • How often are blood transfusions performed?
General Info • Blood type is genetically determined. • There are many surface proteins on RBCs, but there are three commonly used for blood typing: “A”, “B” and Rhesus surface proteins. • Surface proteins are called agglutinogens. • Antibodies for these surface proteins are called agglutinins.
ABO blood groups - HW • Proteins on the surface of RBC are called ANTIGENS. • The body makes ANTIBODIES that react with foreign antigens.
a.Donor’s antibodies amount = dilute, Recipient’s antibodies amount = concentrated b. Therefore, the antibodies of the recipient react with the RBCs of the donor. c.What will happen? Agglutination, clogging of vessels and perhaps death
Predict the outcome: • B gives to A • B gives to AB • O gives to A
Rh factor • First discovered in Rhesus monkeys. • It was another RBC surface protein. • What does Rh+ mean? • Rh protein present on RBCs. • No agglutinins for Rh agglutinogens. • What does Rh- mean? • Rh protein absent on RBCs. • Has the capacity to produce Rh agglutinins
Exercise 11.7 – Rh and pregnancy (erythroblastosis fetalis) • Antigen D 1a. Rh+ 1b. Rh- • Rh+ cells 2a. Foreign to 2b.antibodies • Can 3a. Agglutinate 3b. Does not • Can • Agglutination of blood (possible death of fetus)
The Problem w/Rh factor & Pregnancy (erythroblastosis fetalis) • Occurs in women that are Rh- and have Rh+ baby. • During pregnancy some of the fetal blood cells migrate back into the mother’s circulation. • Usually the RBCs and other large blood components are too large to pass through the placenta. • When the fetal blood mixes with the mothers, the mother starts to make agglutinins for the Rh agglutinogen. • However, the baby is born before enough agglutinins migrate back into the fetus, so baby is unaffected.
The Problem with Rh factor and Pregnancy • If the next baby is Rh+, the mother will start producing large numbers of agglutinins and these will attack the fetal blood, destroying RBCs. • If the baby is Rh- it has no proteins to react with the mothers antibodies. • To prevent the problem, when a Rh- mother has a Rh+ baby, they give her a RHO GAM (anti-Rh gamma 2-globulin agglutinin) shot. • This shot tie up the agglutinogens so they cannot be recognized by the mothers immune system, therefore she does not produce the anti-Rh agglutinins.
Blood Transfusions • What blood type can “A” person receive? • What blood type can “B” person receive? • What blood type can “AB” person receive? • What blood type can “O” person receive? • What blood type is a universal donor? • What blood type is a universal recipient?
OVERVIEW OF BLOOD CELLS • Quick Video
C. White Blood Cells • Granulocytes= neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils • Agranulocytes = monocytes and lymphocytes • Granulocytes and monocytes are produced by bone marrow when stimulated by colony stimulating factors
4. Lymphocytes from bone marrow are • T Cells • B Cells • NK Cells (Natural Killer Cells)
4. Name the lymphocytes that: • Finish development in thymus = T cells • Immune response when foreign antigen is present = T cells and B cells • Function without previous exposure = NK Cells
T cells develop into 4 functionally different cells that look the same. • CHART • Neutrophils • Eosinophils • Basophils • Monocytes • Lymphocytes (B and T cells) • Natural Killer Cells
D. Leucocytes (WBCs) • Function - protection by phagocytosis or antibody production and chemical warfare. • Structure • They have nuclei and don’t contain hemoglobin. • 5-9 thousand WBCs/mm3 • @ 10-19 microns in diameter depending on type.
3. Two basic groups of leucocytes: • Granular leucocytes • finish development in the bone marrow • Contain small granules and have encapsulated nuclei (see chapter 12) • Phagocytic & release digestive enzymes.
iv. 3 kinds of granular leucocytes: • Neutrophils- 60-70% of all WBC-high neutrophil count indicates an acute infection, especially bacterial. • Eosinophils- 2-4% of all WBCs-produces antihistamine so a high eosinophil count indicates an allergic reaction. • Basophils- 1% of all WBCs produces heparin, histamine, and serotonin so it is also involved in the allergic reaction.
b. Agranular leucocytes • Finish development in the lymphatic system. • Produce antibodies and are phagocytic.