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Social Presence What is it? And How Do We Measure It?. Patrick R. Lowenthal | University of Colorado Denver. What is Social Presence ?. Social Presence Theory. Communications Studies Group at the University College in London in the 1970s

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social presence what is it and how do we measure it

Social PresenceWhat is it? And How Do We Measure It?

Patrick R. Lowenthal | University of Colorado Denver

social presence theory
Social Presence Theory

Communications Studies Group at the University College in London in the 1970s

Short, J.A., Williams, E., & Christie, B. (1976). The social psychology of telecommunications. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

original definition
Original Definition

Social presence is the degree of salience (i.e., quality or state of being there) between two communicators using a communication medium.

what does that mean
What does that mean?
  • It’s a quality of a communication medium.
  • Some media (e.g., video) have higher social presence than other media (e.g., audio)
  • Media w/ high social presence are sociable, warm, and personal; media w/ low social presence are as less personal.
computer mediated communication
Computer-mediated Communication

Early CMC Research Suggested

  • CMC is a lean medium
  • CMC is better at task oriented communication
  • CMC is inherently antisocial and impersonal
rise of online learning
Rise of Online Learning

Proponents and practitioners argued

  • CMC can support the social practice of learning and be very interpersonal
  • Learners can present themselves as being “real” as well as “connect” with others
  • Perceptions & behaviors online matter just as much, if not more, than a medium’s supposed capabilities
rise of online learning21
Rise of Online Learning

Proponents and practitioners argued

  • CMC can support the social practice of learning and be very interpersonal
  • Learners can present themselves as being “real” as well as “connect” with others
  • Perceptions & behaviors online matter just as much, if not more, than a medium’s supposed capabilities
rise of online learning22
Rise of Online Learning

Proponents and practitioners argued

  • CMC can support the social practice of learning and be very interpersonal
  • Learners can present themselves as being “real” as well as “connect” with others
  • Perceptions & behaviors online matter just as much, if not more, than a medium’s supposed capabilities
research on social presence
Research on Social Presence
  • A relationship between social presence and student satisfaction
  • A relationship between social presence and the development of a community of learners
  • A relationship between social presence and perceived learning
research on social presence25
Research on Social Presence
  • A relationship between social presence and student satisfaction
  • A relationship between social presence and the development of a community of learners
  • A relationship between social presence and perceived learning
research on social presence26
Research on Social Presence
  • A relationship between social presence and student satisfaction
  • A relationship between social presence and the development of a community of learners
  • A relationship between social presence and perceived learning
definitions of social presence
Definitions of Social Presence
  • “the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person’” (Gunawardena)
  • “the ability … to project themselves socially and emotionally, as ‘real’ people (i.e., their full personality), through the medium of communication being used” (Garrison et al., 2000)
  • “a student’s sense of being in and belonging in a course and the ability to interact with other students and an instructor” (Picciano, 2002)
  • “the degree of feeling, perception, and reaction of being connected by CMC to another intellectual entity through a text-based encounter” (Tu & McIsaac, 2002)
  • “the ability of participants to identify with the community …, communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop inter-personal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities.” (Garrison, 2009)
definitions of social presence31
Definitions of Social Presence
  • “the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person’” (Gunawardena)
  • “the ability … to project themselves socially and emotionally, as ‘real’ people (i.e., their full personality), through the medium of communication being used” (Garrison et al., 2000)
  • “a student’s sense of being in and belonging in a course and the ability to interact with other students and an instructor” (Picciano, 2002)
  • “the degree of feeling, perception, and reaction of being connected by CMC to another intellectual entity through a text-based encounter” (Tu & McIsaac, 2002)
  • “the ability of participants to identify with the community …, communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop inter-personal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities.” (Garrison, 2009)
definitions of social presence32
Definitions of Social Presence
  • “the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person’” (Gunawardena)
  • “the ability … to project themselves socially and emotionally, as ‘real’ people (i.e., their full personality), through the medium of communication being used” (Garrison et al., 2000)
  • “a student’s sense of being in and belonging in a course and the ability to interact with other students and an instructor” (Picciano, 2002)
  • “the degree of feeling, perception, and reaction of being connected by CMC to another intellectual entity through a text-based encounter” (Tu & McIsaac, 2002)
  • “the ability of participants to identify with the community …, communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop inter-personal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities.” (Garrison, 2009)
definitions of social presence33
Definitions of Social Presence
  • “the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person’” (Gunawardena)
  • “the ability … to project themselves socially and emotionally, as ‘real’ people (i.e., their full personality), through the medium of communication being used” (Garrison et al., 2000)
  • “a student’s sense of being in and belonging in a course and the ability to interact with other students and an instructor” (Picciano, 2002)
  • “the degree of feeling, perception, and reaction of being connected by CMC to another intellectual entity through a text-based encounter” (Tu & McIsaac, 2002)
  • “the ability of participants to identify with the community …, communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop inter-personal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities.” (Garrison, 2009)
definitions of social presence34
Definitions of Social Presence
  • “the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person’” (Gunawardena)
  • “the ability … to project themselves socially and emotionally, as ‘real’ people (i.e., their full personality), through the medium of communication being used” (Garrison et al., 2000)
  • “a student’s sense of being in and belonging in a course and the ability to interact with other students and an instructor” (Picciano, 2002)
  • “the degree of feeling, perception, and reaction of being connected by CMC to another intellectual entity through a text-based encounter” (Tu & McIsaac, 2002)
  • “the ability of participants to identify with the community …, communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop inter-personal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities.” (Garrison, 2009)
original definition35
Original Definition

Social presence is the degree of salience (i.e., quality or state of being there) between two communicators using a communication medium.

perceptions41
Perceptions

Affective expression

--Getting to know other course participants gave me a sense of belonging in the course.

--I was able to form distinct impressions of some course participants.

--Online or web-based communication is an excellent medium for social interaction.

perceptions42
Perceptions

Affective expression

--Getting to know other course participants gave me a sense of belonging in the course.

--I was able to form distinct impressions of some course participants.

--Online or web-based communication is an excellent medium for social interaction.

perceptions43
Perceptions

Open communication / Interactive

--I felt comfortable conversing through the online medium.

--I felt comfortable participating in the course discussions.

--I felt comfortable interacting with other course participants.

perceptions44
Perceptions

Group cohesion

--I felt comfortable disagreeing with other course participants while still maintaining a sense of trust.

--I felt that my point of view was acknowledged by other course participants.

--Online discussions help me to develop a sense of collaboration.

perceptions45
Perceptions

Group cohesion

--I felt comfortable disagreeing with other course participants while still maintaining a sense of trust.

--I felt that my point of view was acknowledged by other course participants.

--Online discussions help me to develop a sense of collaboration.

social presence
Social Presence

Affective

Interactive

Cohesive

Social Presence

+

+

=

slide52

Patrick R. Lowenthal

patrick.lowenthal@ucdenver.eduPowerpoint& Paper @ www.slideshare.net/plowenthal