句子的写作 一、语法规范 主谓结构完整、主谓一致、正确的时态、语态以及其他语法规则。 There are many students play football on the sports ground. There is a teacher I shall always remember. Because she has a sweet voice and a pleasant smile. It is incredible to many people. Cigarette smokers spend money for illness.
二、一致性与连贯性 一致性指意思的完整性，即一个句子所表达的是一个相对完整的意思。 连贯性指句子各部分意义上的连贯和句子各部分之间结构上的连贯 He was knocked down, but it was not serious. He was knocked down, but was not seriously hurt. Tom is charming, clever, and a very capable young man. To succeed in a scientific research, persistence is needed. To succeed in a scientific research, one needs to be persistent. Looking out of window, a lake can be seen.
The cause of/reason for higher prices was an increase in demand.The effect/result of an increase in demand is higher prices.Because/As /Since/Now that the demand has increased, the prices are higher.An increase in demand often causes/results in/leads to /produces higher prices.Higher prices are caused by/due to an increase in demand.The prices are higher because of /as a result of /on account of/owing to/through an increase in demand.The prices are higher because /since /as there is an increase in demand
1.The cause of/reason for higher prices was an increase in demand.2.The effect/result of an increase in demand is higher prices.3.Because/As /Since/Now that the demand has increased, the prices are higher.4.An increase in demand often causes/results in/leads to /produces higher prices.5.Higher prices are caused by/due to an increase in demand.6.The prices are higher because of /as a result of /on account of/owing to/through an increase in demand.7.The prices are higher because /since /as there is an increase in demand
1.主动式与被动式 • Today, we use machines not only in industry but in other sector of national economy as well. • Today machines are widely used not only in industry but in other sectors of national economy as well. • Some people believe that it will be possible for automatic machines to replace man completely in the future. • It is believed by some people that it will be possible for automatic machines to replace man completely in the future.
2、肯定句与否定句 • I shall go there unless it rains. • I shall go there if it doesn’t rain. • Their daily lives don’t provide them with the exercise needed to keep them healthy. • Their daily lives fail to provide them with the exercise needed to keep them healthy.
1.某些修饰成分既可用在句子前面也可用在后面，后中间1.某些修饰成分既可用在句子前面也可用在后面，后中间 • with a car, people can get around freely. • People can get around freely with a car. • In fact, speaking is one of the most important means of communication. • Speaking is in fact one of the most important means of communication.
4． 既可以正装语序也可倒装 • A new type of TV sets was among the products on display. • Among the products on display was a new type of TV sets. • We did not realize the problem of energy crisis until the end of last century. • Not until the end of last century did we realize the problem of energy crisis.
5.简单句、并列句、复合句 • Nowadays a lot of people work in office, spending most of their time indoors. • Nowadays a lot of people work in office and they spend most of their time indoors. • There are many means of getting information and they enable us to keep up with what is going on in the world. • There are many means of getting information which enable us to keep up with what is going on in the world.
6. 应用修辞，增强说服力 • simile (明喻) • He is as sly as a fox. • Her face is like rose—fresh, delicate and beautiful. • Metaphor（暗喻） • College is a micro-society in the life. • He is a fox. • Personification(拟人) • The little waves, with their soft, white hands, wipe out the footprints in the sands. • The chimney, rank on rank, cut the clear sky.
6. 应用修辞，增强说服力 • Many people have tried a thousand times before they achieve their goals. • Only a madman would choose to live in a modern city. • Our life would be like soup with alt or flowers without sunlight. • The best way is to reduce, reuse, and recycle. • If you want to earn a satisfactory grade in the training program, you must arrive punctually, you must behave courteously, and you must study conscientiously.
7． 使用强调结构 • 词汇手段：only, alone even, just, by far, a good/great deal, at al, whatsoever, the hell, on earth • eg. I know nothing whatsoever about the accident. • What the hell have we been expecting? • Time alone will show who is right. • by far 通常用于强调最高级。用于比较级时,一般放在比较级的后面, 如放在前面,应在二者中间加“the”。He is taller by far than his brother. He is by far the taller of the two brothers.
7．语法手段： • （1） 助动词do放在所强调的谓语动词之前 • He promised to help us and he did help us. • John does work hard before exam. • (2)it is/was …that句型 • It was because the fuel was used up that the engine stopped running. • It is the true love in his heart that moved her to tears.
修辞手段： • 重点放在句首或句尾 • 把句子中一系列的项目作逻辑性排列，平行结构 • Tony ate dinner, watched TV, and then went to bed. • Were you bored with years of study in elementary school, high school and institute of higher education? • Few people are immune to vanity, jealousy and pretension. • I am hungry, thirsty and sleepy. • 重复
8、使用一些常用的基本句型 • （1）开头句 • With the rapid development /improvement…/growing awareness of …, more and more… • Recently, issue/problem/question of …has been… • One of the universal issues we are faced with /that cause increasing concern is that … • In the past few years, there has been a boom/sharp growth/decline in…
According to the information given in the table / graph, we can find that… • As can be seen from the table/graph/figure, there is a marked increase /decline/change in … • The table/graph shows that there is a declining/increasing trend of…from …to…
(2)原因结果句 • There are probably many reasons for this dramatic/marked /significant /extraordinary…increase/decline/growth/change in… • The answer to this problem involves many factors… • That’s the reason why…
This can account for… • We may blame…, but the real causes are.. • One of the most common causes is that…, another factor/cause is… • But the fundamental causes is that…
(3) 比较对照句型 • The advantages of A are much greater than those of B • The advantage derived from A far outweigh/are much greater than/carry more weight than the disadvantages. • Like anything else, it has its faults. • A and B has several points in common. • A and B differ in several ways. • People used to think…, but things are different now.
(4)结尾句 • From what has been discussed above, we can draw the conclusion that… • It is high time that strict measures were taken to stop… • To solve the above-mentioned problem, we must… • In conclusion, it is imperative that…
其他常用句型 • There is no denying that… • It is universally acknowledged that… • It is universally acknowledged that it is the doctor’s duty and obligation to heal the wounded and rescue the dying. • So…that… • Advertisements are so pervasive that no one can avoid being influenced by them. • It pays to.. • Eg. It pays to create a fair atmosphere in which both males and females cooperate and compete on an equal footing.
Spare no effort to … • Due to…/owing to…/thanks to… • Eg. Thanks to coeducation system, benign competition and cooperation between male and female students are rightly encouraged. • Only…can… • Eg. Only in cities can children be well prepared for their future life and keep up with the trend of the world. • Do one’s utmost to… • Eg. Schools should do their utmost to ensure the students’ sound growth.
Paragraph Writing 段落写作 • 段落由一组围绕并发展段落主题意义的相关联的句子构成。 • 主题句（Topic sentence）； • 支持句（扩展句）(supporting sentence)； • 结尾句(concluding sentence)。
Example: • The emergence of laid-off workers is the inevitable result of the current economic reform. The purpose of the new market economic system is to bring about the economic development to the largest degree.
This requires the labors to contribute their utmost to contribute their utmost to promote social wealth, and it is quite different from that under the formerly planning economic system, when plenty of people did the work several people manage, which resulted in the waste of labors and low degree of productivity. It is necessary that a certain number of people be laid off.
Example 2. • My mother has passed me certain rules for getting along with others. Don’t argue with parents; they will think you don’t love them. Don’t argue with children; they will think themselves victimized. Don’t argue with spouses; they will think you are a tiresome mate. Don’t argue with strangers; they will think you are not friendly. My mother’s rules, in fact, can be summed up in two words: don’t argue.
II. 段落写作的要求 • Unity(一致性) • Completeness(完整性) • Coherence(连贯性) • 连贯性指段落中各句在切题的基础上衔接紧密，句与句之间的连接具有逻辑性和流畅性。按一定的语义关系和逻辑顺序有条理地组织段落。
意连和形连。 • 意连：时间先后，位置远近，逻辑关系（重要性、一般到特殊、特殊到一般） • 形连：行文的逻辑性常常要靠适当的转换词语及其他手段来实现。
Walter’s goal in life was to become a successful surgeon. First, though , he had to get through high school, so he concentrated all his efforts on his studies-in particular, biology, chemistry, and math. Because he worked constantly on these subjects, Walter become proficient in them; however, Walter forgot he needed to master other subjects besides those he had chosen.
As a result, during his junior year of high school, Walter failed both English and Latin. Consequently, he had to repeat these subjects and he was almost unable to graduate on schedule. Finally, on June, 6, Walter achieved the first step toward realizing his goal.
Task: Find out the transitional words. • Assignment: Write a paragraph around the topic: Learning English at college is different from learning English at the middle school.
III. 主题句的写法 • 主题句是一段文字中概括全段中心思想，表明段落主要观点的一句话，段落中其他句子必须紧紧围绕它来展开。 • 通常位于句首，也可置于段尾或段中。尽量使用简单句或简洁明了的句子。
For example. • Even when we are very careful in the things we do each day, the risk of loss and injury is always with us. Starting the day with a shower, we risk slipping and falling through the glass door. Riding to work, we risk collision. While we are away from our homes, the risk of fire and burglary is greater.
Going to school, our children risk being injured. We also suffer loss through unintentional actions of our own that might injure others. Such events may occur regardless of how careful we may try to be, and they can cost us a lot of money. Rather than taking the chance of being wiped out financially(经济上被摧毁), we transfer some of our risks to others, we buy insurance.
IV. 扩展句的写法 • 围绕主题句展开，支持、说明和阐述主题句的句子是扩展句。 • 句与句之间的连贯性与一致性 • 表顺序的过渡词：first, second, third , last, finally, eventually, afterwards, meanwhile, thereafter • 表递进或补充的词：in addition, furthermore, also, moreover, yet • 表让步的过渡词：although, nevertheless, of course, after all, clearly, still, yet
表述结果的过渡词：therefore, as a result, consequently, then, thereby, therefore, thus, hence, accordingly, so otherwise • 表示对比的过渡词：unlike, in contrast, whereas, on the other hand, instead • 表示总结的过渡词：to sum up, finally, in conclusion, at last, in short, in a word, in the long run, summary
扩展句的写法： • 定义法 • Example: • What is honesty? Honesty means speaking the truth and being fair and upright in act. Honesty is a good virtue, he who lies or cheats is dishonest. Those who gain fortunes, not by hard labor, but by other means are dishonest. • Be defined as …, the definition of…is, means, state that, in other words, namely… • 因果法 • 比较与对比法
举例与例证法 • Example: • Yesterday was one of those awful days for me when everything I did went wrong. Fist, I didn’t hear my alarm clock and arrived late for work. Then, I didn’t read my diary properly and forgot to get o an important meeting with my boss. During he coffee break, I dropped my coffee cup and spoil my new skirt. At lunch time, I left my purse on a bus and lost all the money that was in it.
After lunch, my boss was angry because I hadn’t tone the meeting. Then I didn’t notice a sign on a door that said “Wet Paint” and I spoilt my jacket too. When I got home I couldn’t get into my flat because I had left my key in my office. So I broke a window to get in and cut my hand.
结尾句的写法： • 1、重申中心思想；做出结论； • 2、引用格言、谚语或习语总结全文 • example: If you have anything to do, try to do it yourself, for that is the safest way to permanent success. Remember the famous saying. “ God helps those who help themselves.” • If we stick to studies day after day, there is nothing that can’t be achieved. As an old saying goes” “constant dropping of water wears away a stone.”
1、反问结尾： • Example: So, what can we benefit from wealth if we do not have health? • 2、提出展望或期望： • I am sure that Chinese will become one of the most important languages in the world in the next century. As China will open further to the outside world the language is sure to be spread world widely.
Task: • Write a passage with the given topic sentences: Women in the Modern World • Para1:Women are playing in increasingly important role in society. • Para2: with the changes in their social role women’s position in the family has been improved as well. • Para 3: In spite of these changes, women still face many difficulties and obstacles due to their traditional roles and limited economic strength.
Essay Writing(文章写法) • 一、评分标准， • 四点： • Task Achievement(任务完成)， • Coherence and Cohesion(连贯与衔接)， • Lexical Resource(词汇资源)， • Grammatical Range and Accuracy(语法范围与精确)。
二、步骤 • 1、审题 • 2、构思 • 3、行文 • 4、修改
Example 1:The government should allow the establishment of private universities
Example 2: • Students Doing Part-time Work • Outline: • 1.advantages • 2.disadvantages • 3.Comments
Topic sentences • 1.Students working part time usually have a positive attitude towards this extra-curriculum experience. • 2.There are also some disadvantages in students doing part-time work. • 3.Good or bad now, it is not easy to get part-time job in China now.
Students Doing Part-time Work • More and more students are doing part-time work. Students working part time usually have a positive attitude toward this extra-curriculum experience. Besides earning some money to support themselves, they can learn a lot which cannot be learned from textbooks. They will learn to get along with different kinds of people, get useful working experiences and learn the value of labor.
However, there are also some disadvantages in students doing part-time work. For example, too much work may cut into students’ study time when they should get the best out of their college life and lay a good foundation for their future work. Another disadvantage is that money earned, if not properly used, may lead to some bad, or even greed.