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A Long-term Sunspot Magnetic Field Decrease. William Livingston (NSO) Rachel MacDonald (Yale) Tom Schad (UAz). Dark umbral cores observed. Intro to spectra. Magnetostatics can be used to describe horizontal pressure balance between spot and surrounding solar photosphere.

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A Long-term Sunspot Magnetic Field Decrease


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    1. A Long-term Sunspot Magnetic Field Decrease William Livingston (NSO) Rachel MacDonald (Yale) Tom Schad (UAz) Space Weather Workshop

    2. Dark umbral cores observed • Intro to spectra Space Weather Workshop

    3. Space Weather Workshop

    4. Magnetostatics can be used to describe horizontal pressure balance between spot and surrounding solar photosphere. Space Weather Workshop

    5. Magnetostatics can be used to describe horizontal pressure balance between spot and surrounding solar photosphere. Pp = nkTp Ps = nkTs + magnetic pressure Space Weather Workshop

    6. Jaeggli 2009 • If sunspot magnetic fields changed, and the solar photosphere remained constant, then the sunspot temperatures should also change: this would impact the sunspot intensities, and the abundance of molecules. Solid: 18 Sep 98, I=.55 Iqs Dashed: 27 Dec 05, I=.78 Iqs Space Weather Workshop

    7. Space Weather Workshop

    8. KPVT data archive First work: 4000 spots: Imin,Numbra Current work: 13,000 spots, Imin, Numbra, Magnetic Field Space Weather Workshop

    9. Although variations in Intensity were seen, no radius change was seen in this sample from the archive. This was in conflict with well-known empirical B vs radius correlations. Space Weather Workshop

    10. Space Weather Workshop

    11. Space Weather Workshop

    12. Space Weather Workshop

    13. The automated sampling also showed that the B vs. radius relationship remained constant through solar cycle 23. Space Weather Workshop

    14. The automated sampling also showed that the B vs. radius relationship remained constant through solar cycle 23. • Only small changes were seen in I and B vs. time in the larger sample, but importantly the change seen were fully accounted for by changes in the radius Space Weather Workshop

    15. The automated sampling also showed that the B vs. radius relationship remained constant through solar cycle 23. • Only small changes were seen in I and B vs. time in the larger sample, but importantly the change seen were fully accounted for by changes in the radius • Conclusion: the fundamental structure of a sunspot doesn’t change through the cycle… the only support for the IR measurements is a slightly changing mean radius. Space Weather Workshop

    16. Space Weather Workshop

    17. Space Weather Workshop

    18. Introduction Space Weather Workshop

    19. Introduction Space Weather Workshop

    20. Introduction Space Weather Workshop

    21. Introduction Space Weather Workshop

    22. Conservative interpretation • The distribution of the sunspot magnetic fields during the declining phase of the sunspot cycle are different from the fields during the rise phase of the sunspot cycle. Space Weather Workshop

    23. Space Weather Workshop

    24. Space Weather Workshop

    25. Space Weather Workshop

    26. …possible implication • Making three assumptions: • Livingston’s cycle 23 IR measurements represent the “true” sunspot magnetic field probability distribution function • There is a real physical cut-off so that no sunspots form with maximum magnetic fields less than 1500G • The decrease in the mean field continues • …then Solar cycle 24 will peak with a spot number of 57, and cycle 25 will peak with a spot number of 3. Space Weather Workshop

    27. Critical observations • IR measurements of the true B field strength in sunspots must be made in the next sunspot cycle Space Weather Workshop

    28. Critical observations • IR measurements of the true B field strength in sunspots must be made in the next sunspot cycle • Will umbrae with B>3000G return? Space Weather Workshop

    29. Critical observations • IR measurements of the true B field strength in sunspots must be made in the next sunspot cycle • Will umbrae with B>3000G return? • Will most cycle 24 spots have B<2000G? Space Weather Workshop

    30. Critical observations • IR measurements of the true B field strength in sunspots must be made in the next sunspot cycle • Will umbrae with B>3000G return? • Will most cycle 24 spots have B<2000G? • Efforts are underway to cross-calibrate Livingston’s observations with 2-D maps of the IR sunspot magnetic fields from the NAC. Space Weather Workshop