Development of scintillation detectors with MRS APD light readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL presh...
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Development of scintillation detectors with MRS APD light readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower. Alexander Akindinov ITEP(Moscow) on behalf of ALICE-ITEP group. Outlook. MRS APD – fast Geiger mode high gain photodetector START – technology

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Development of scintillation detectors with MRS APD light readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

Alexander Akindinov

ITEP(Moscow) on behalf of ALICE-ITEP group


Outlook
Outlook readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

  • MRS APD – fast Geiger mode high gain photodetector

  • START – technology

  • ALICE CRTF – first implementation for START technology

  • Counters for CBM muon systems

  • Counters for EMCAL preshower

  • Conclusion


Mrs apd fast geiger mode high gain photodetector

Readout readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

-Voper

MRS APD – fast Geiger mode high gain photodetector

M = C*(U - Ubr)

MRS APD structure

Many other name:

SiPM, MPPC, GAPD…

Slope corresponds to elementary micro-cell capacity Q/U.

Q = Ncell*C*(U - Ubr)

Single electron resolution is a result of dispersion of Ubr and Ccell across diode area.


Optical trench(CPTA) – low optical coupling between cells. readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshowerAcceptable noise rate for reasonable thresholds

Probability to have more

than one pixel fired from a single primary e-h pair

 = (N n+1)/ (N n )

Noise spectrum slope is a result of “red” cross-talks between cells, when avalanche in one cell initiate avalanche in neighboring one via photon.

PDE is optimize for WLS fibers

P.D.E. = Q.E. * g* R

εg – geometrical fill-factor

R – probability to initiate

Geiger avalanche

Q.E. – quantum efficiency

CPTA MRS APD α= 0.1

For 4th cell threshold noise count about a few kHz

High geometrical factor


Start s cintillation t ile with mrs a pd light r eadou t
START- readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower(Scintillation Tile with MRS APD Light ReadouT)

MRS APD optimize geometry (d=1.15 mm) for the fiber readout

σ-shape groove for uniform response

Two MRS APD

in coincidence

“On board” FEE

Mosaic array

Signal/noise

Threshold

Cosmic μ

Polisterol 165 150X150X10 mm

1 groove, 2 rings Y11 and glued


First implementation alice crtf
First implementation - ALICE CRTF readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

Upper plane

10 strips 8 STARTs

in each (80 STARTS)

Bottom plane

10 strips 8 STARTs

in each (80 STARTS)

Up to 5 ALICE TOF modules under the test.


Trigger and monitoring
Trigger and monitoring readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

Simple logic block for trigger configuration and monitoring were connected via USB to LabView

  • !!Monitoring the only by counting rate of individual detector, no any LED system was used.!!!

  • Efficiency was measured as difference in counting rate for 80 pairs.


Long term operation results
Long term operation results readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

First real experiment with 320 new photosensors (CPTA firm MRS APD).

About 3 years of continues operation, all 87 ALICE TOF modules was tested.

Summary of “dead” and replaced diodes


Counters for cbm muon system
Counters for CBM muon system readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

“Develop and produce START prototypes adapted for dE/dx measurements. Five detectors of each of two types of START will be produced: tiles sized 100x100x 10 mm3 and strips sized 5x200x10 mm3

INTAS Ref. Nr 06-1000012-8781

Strips 5x200x10 mm3

Tiles with different groove diameters to find optimal uniformity (d = 90, 80, 70, 60, 50 mm)

ROLAND milling machine

!!!Many thanks to our friends from ITEP-CALICE group!!!!


New package to minimize dead zone and new connector
New package to minimize “dead zone” and new connector readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

TO-18

New package

Very uniform response (about 8%). Main sources - regions near optical connectors and groove.

New transparent optical connector produced by the same digital milling machine as tiles


Diodes calibration and fiber cut
Diodes calibration and fiber cut readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

Each diode after placement into connector was checked (how well diode active area is with connector hole)

Setup to cut fiber with microscope

Setup for diodes test

Mixer

12 channel board


Diodes calibration and fiber cut1
Diodes calibration and fiber cut readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

Number of photoelectrons for given light was checked

I-U curve to find out breakdown point

Single cell noise and photoionization (α) coefficient were measured


Detector assembly and electronics
Detector assembly and electronics readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

FEE card for tiles

Simple amplifier for strips (10mm width)

Tiles were wrapped in Tyveсk and light shield


FEE for tiles readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

Ubias сontrol

Test input (50 Ω)

Jumper 2 for

test

Jumper 1 for

test

Ubias

Amplitude 2

(50 Ω)

Amplitude 1

(50 Ω)

Threshold

Jumper 2 for

coincidence

(on)

Jumper 1 for

coincidence

(on)

LED

LVDS

GND

+4-+10 V


First task find optimal geometry for uniform response
First task: find optimal geometry for uniform response readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

D=50 mm

D=80

mm

D=90

mm

D=60

mm

D=70

mm

Scans were done using Ru β – source with 2.5 mm collimator. 19x19 points (5 mm step).


New improved mrs apd 2007
New improved MRS APD (2007) readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

Data was taken from

http://www.photonique.ch/

Photonique SA C.P. 15621211 Geneva-1Switzerland

Reduced thickness of n+ - PDE increased + blue enhanced

2005 – diodes for ALICE CRTF

New diodes 2007


Light yield with old and new diodes
Light yield with old and new diodes readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

Beam test CERN PS (2x2 cm2 trigger center of tile)

N ≈ 29 ph.e.

N ≈16 ph.e.

N ≈ 22 ph.e.

“43V” old “23V”new

“23V”new

Tile 100x100x10 mm3

Tile 150x150x10 mm3

With this significant improvement can we work with one diode?


Tiles with single diodes
Tiles with single diodes readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

Three reasons to produce tiles with one diode:

To check if we can improve light yield using another glue

Check if we can work with one diode

Make prototype for ECAL preshower

3 tiles were used for test

2 were assembled for cosmic test

100x100x10 mm3 with one output for fiber ( d=80 mm )

So called “half-board” designed for long strips


Other task to improve gluing
Other task: to improve gluing readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

How it’s important

4 grams each time

Accuracy up to 0.01g

Measurements were done before and after gluing with the same diode

Does not depend on plastic type

Since refractive indexes almost the same we can suppose that difference is due to acid type (groove walls “melting” – more uniform and transparent volume). For our milling process – Epo-Tek 301 is the best.


Cosmic ray test one diode
Cosmic ray test one diode readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

“Soft”

Muons

Ped

Muons

Diode noise

“Soft” and “hard” part of cosmic ray

It works!!! We can use only one diode.


Last task strips
Last task: Strips readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

3M tape

R.M.S ≈ 12%

4 stripes shows some “oscillating” signals. Reason bad 3M mirror contact. All tiles were reassembled. New test will be done about 20 of October.


Conclusion
Conclusion readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

  • START detector was adopted for dE/dx measurements

  • Optimal diameter d=80 mm for tile 100x100x10 mm3 response was found (r.m.s < 5.0 %).

  • EPO-TEK 301 glue was found as optimal to increase light yield.

  • 3 types of FEE board were produced (all commercially evaluable)

  • Progress in MRS APD development allows to use only one diode for readout keeping signal/noise ratio almost the same like for two old diodes

  • 4 strips 200x10x5 mm3 were reassembled and will be tested again. Good one has 12% r.m.s.(?)

  • Tools for mass production were produced.


Thank you
Thank you! readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower


Backup
BACKUP readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower


MRS APD calibration readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

Ubias for given amplification about 106

Thank to Yuri Musienko

from CMS APD lab.


Response and leakage tests readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshower

All current is due to intrinsic noise, no significant leakage

Difference – small difference in αand coupling with fiber (epoxy layer share)


Noise readout for CBM Muon system and ECAL preshowermeasurements

Photoionization α

Difference – different field noise contribution to the thermal noise


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