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WELCOME…. CiTi VET. ITCHY PETS? SCRATCHING BENEATH THE SURFACE. Presented by : Dr. Peter van der Merwe. CiTi VET. WHAT IS ITCHINESS?. The desire to scratch, lick, rub, chew and nibble at skin surface in response to chemical stimulus.

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slide1

WELCOME…

CiTiVET

slide2

ITCHY PETS?

SCRATCHING BENEATH

THESURFACE

Presented by : Dr. Peter van derMerwe

CiTiVET

slide3

WHAT IS ITCHINESS?

  • The desire to scratch, lick, rub, chew and nibble at skin surface in response to chemical stimulus.
  • Itchiness causes discomfort and decreases pet’s quality of life.
  • “An itchy pet is an unhappy pet”
  • Usually living with a frustrated owner
slide4

THE MOST COMMON CAUSES

OF ITCHING:

  • External parasites :
  • Fleas
  • Mange mites
  • Lice
slide5

Common causes of itching

  • Allergies:
          • Atopy (hayfever)
            • Caused by interaction of abnormal
              • Skin barrier genes
              • Immune function genes
              • Exposure to allergens & pathogens
              • Allergens incl house dust, dust &

storage mites, pollens, moulds

              • Characterised by initial seasonal

occurrence & “flare ups”

          • Flea bite allergy
            • Abnormal response to flea saliva
            • Often worse in atopic individuals
          • Food
            • Itchy skin sometimes with digestive upsets
            • Usually non seasonal -> ears, rears, paws
          • Contact allergies
            • Very rare,
slide6

Bacteria

Skin infections

  • Staphylococcus
  • Streptococcus
  • Yeast (Malessia)
slide7

WHAT HAPPENS TO

THE SKIN?

NORMAL SKIN

slide11

Treatment

Flea control

  • Adulticides on pet e.g Frontline, Advantage, Practic
  • Capstar
  • Enviromental control pyrethroids and methoprene
  • Sprays -> Flego, Ultrum Duration

Treatment of mange mites

  • Revolution
  • Advocate
  • Amitraz dips such as Amitrax, Triatix

Control skin infections

  • Bacteria – Anti bacterial shampoos and wipes
    • Antibiotics
  • Yeast – Shampoos
    • Anti Fungals (egKetazol)
slide12

Treatment

  • Allergic skin disease
    • Atopy
      • Can’t be cured, only controlled
      • Multimodal approach is essential
      • First control parasite & microorganism infections
      • High quality diet especially fish based -> hypoallergenic formulations are best
      • Omega 3 supplementation
      • Barrier treatments
        • Allerderm – decreases secondary infections, less effect on itchiness
        • Shampoo – best is Allermyl but physical action of washing is most important, bath 1-2x weekly
      • Topical -> new cortisone spray Cortavance
slide13

Treatment

  • Corticosteroids
      • Best given as short acting tablets eglenisilone
      • Many side effects including weight gain, urinary tract infections, increase risk of skin infections, decrease in bone and muscle strengths
      • Safe annual dose calculated as 30x dog’s body weight in milligrams of steroid i.e. 10 kg dog can take 300 mg of steroid over a year
slide14

Treatment

  • Cyclosporin
      • New drug being launched today
      • Long term control not for use in controlling acute flare ups
      • Side effects
        • Very Expensive
        • Vomiting in approximately 30% of patients
        • Hriutism, gingival hyperplasia, urinary tract infections
        • Rare s/e unmasking systemic infections e.g. fungal infections and Toxoplasmosis
        • In humans may increase risk for lymphoma (cancer) – not proven in dogs
slide15

Treatment

  • Antihistamines
    • Only work in 10% of patients
    • Generally safe and used with other treatments especially cortisone.
    • Main side effect is sedation but should be used with caution in animals with glaucoma, heart disease, urinary bladder problems
slide16

Treatment

  • Immunotherapy
    • Based on blood tests of IgE levels
    • Problem ->approximately 30% of atopic dogs do not have raised IgE levels
    • Test does not indicate if raised IgE is causing symptoms, merely that IgE level is high
    • HOWEVER immunotherapy is the only treatment that allows us to reverse part of the pathology, works for majority of patients, reasonable cost
slide17

Treatment

  • If all else fails
    • Gabbapentin -> acts on nerve endings
    • Maropitant (Cerenia) -> substance P
    • Pentoxfyline
    • Prayer
slide18

Food Allergies

  • Diet trail essential for diagnosis, blood tests are inaccurate
  • Diagnosis confirmed by provocative exposure
  • List of common food allergens include
    • Beef, lamb, chicken
    • Soya
    • Maize, rice, wheat
  • avoid all protein treats, faeces (cat poop!!)
  • Commercial diet trail foods are superior to home cooked diets
  • Treatment -> avoid offending foods
slide19

Acknowledgements

  • Thanks once again to all our client who continue to support us
  • Gennavan der Merwe
  • Tamsen Maritz
  • Royal Canin
  • Afrivet
  • Citivetstaff
slide20

Questions??

  • Itching to get answers??