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Perception and Design. Perception and Design. Cartographic design Colour theory and models Patterns Typography and lettering the map. Cartographic design. Design is creation. Objectives of map design. General reference map. Thematic map. Functional design.

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Perception and Design


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    1. Perception and Design

    2. Perception and Design • Cartographic design • Colour theory and models • Patterns • Typography and lettering the map Perception and Design

    3. Cartographic design • Design is creation. • Objectives of map design. • General reference map. • Thematic map. • Functional design. • There are almost unlimited options for organising the visual character of the display. • Most design choices are compromises. Perception and Design

    4. Design process • Draw heavily on imagination and creativity - graphic ideation • Develop a specific graphic plan by analysing various alternatives and weigh them within the limits of the general plan • Prepare detailed specifications for map construction • Design prototypes Perception and Design

    5. Perceptual considerations • Graphic elements • Point marks - position • Line marks - direction and position: a linear array of points • Area marks - extent, direction and position: a 2-dimensional array of points Perception and Design

    6. Perceptual and cognitive limitations • Symbol differences in a display must be perceptible to be of use. • This is determined by two variables, namely just noticeable difference (JND) and least practical difference (LPD). • JND is the smallest difference that can be reliably perceived between symbols, sizes, colours, shapes, etc. • LPD is the smallest difference that can be produced by the cartographic process. Perception and Design

    7. Perceptual and cognitive limitations (cont.) • In manual process of map-making, LPD limits the use of symbols. • JND becomes more critical in computer-generated map products. • JND is largely determined by human eye’s sensitivity to various graphical objects. Some graphical codes “get through” human eyes better than the other. • Graphical perception is dependent upon cognition - the knowledge or understanding of phenomena. Perception and Design

    8. Visual variables • Primary visual variables • Shape • Size • Orientation • Hue (colour) • Value (colour) • chroma (colour) • Secondary visual variables • Arrangement (pattern) • Texture (pattern) • Orientation (pattern) Perception and Design

    9. Primary visual variables The primary visual variables with some examples of their simple application to the classes of symbols. From Robinson, et al., 1995 Perception and Design

    10. Secondary visual variables The secondary visual variables with some examples of their simple application to the basic graphic elements. From Robinson, et al., 1995 Perception and Design

    11. Classes of symbols • Point-emphasising symbols • Line-emphasising symbols • Area-emphasising symbols • Volume-emphasising symbols Perception and Design

    12. Classes of symbols (cont.) Some examples of the four classes of symbols (point-, line-, area-, and volume-emphasising) and how they might be used for a few of the kinds of qualitative and quantitative data. From Robinson, et al., 1995 Perception and Design

    13. Examples of thematic maps • A map is a two-dimensional scale model of a part of the surface of the earth. • Common thematic maps. • Choroplethmaps show relative magnitudes of continuous variables as they occur within the boundaries of unit areas. • Contour/Isarithmic maps represent quantities by lines of equal value and emphasise gradients among the values. Perception and Design

    14. Choropleth maps Perception and Design

    15. Contour/isarithmic maps Perception and Design

    16. Other kinds of maps • Dot maps (e.g. Population) • Symbol maps (e.g. Labour force) • Line maps (e.g. Transport) • 3-dimensional maps (e.g. Landform) • Animation maps (e.g. Weather) Perception and Design

    17. Dot maps Perception and Design

    18. Symbol maps Perception and Design

    19. Line maps Perception and Design

    20. Animation maps Perception and Design

    21. Animation maps (cont.) Perception and Design

    22. Bar chart Pie chart Scatter plot Histogram Other graphics output • Bar chart • Pie chart • Scatter plot • Histogram Perception and Design

    23. Design principles • Legibility - graphic symbols must be easy to read and understand • e.g. Size • Visual contrast • Figure-ground organisation • Differentiation, closed forms, familiarity, lightness, good contour, detail, and size • Hierarchical organisation - visual layering • stereogrammic, extensional and subdivisional Perception and Design

    24. Legibility Approximate minimum sizes for legibility of point symbols. After Robinson, et al., 1995 Perception and Design

    25. Visual contrast Size contrast of lines. Uniformity produces unpleasant monotony. The areas that are most “interesting” are those with with considerable contrast. After Robinson, et al., 1995 Perception and Design

    26. Figure-ground organisation Four simple sketch maps to illustrate various aspects of the figure-ground relationship. From Robinson, et al., 1995 Perception and Design

    27. Hierarchical organisation An example of stereogrammic hierarchical graphic organisation: (A): all elements lie in the same visual plane; (B): the land seems to be above the water, and mordern boundaries rise above the visual plane of the land. From Robinson, et al., 1995 Perception and Design

    28. Stereogrammic organisation Some examples of depth cues that may be useful in stereogrammic organisation. (A), (B), (C) and (D) illustrate various kinds of superimposition. (E) illustrates a progression of size, and (F) illustrates a progression of value. (G) depth cues may be used additively. From Robinson, et al., 1995 Perception and Design

    29. Extensional organisation An example of extensional hierarchical graphic organisation in which a set of roads is graded according to relative importance. From Robinson, et al., 1995 Perception and Design

    30. Sub-divisional organisation An example of sub-divisional hierarchical organisation in which the primary division is between humid and dry climates, with a secondary sub-division based on temperature, and a tertiary sub-division based on desert versus steppe. From Robinson, et al., 1995 Perception and Design

    31. Design planning • The graphic outline • Composition • Visual balance • Contextual items • Titles • Legends • Insets Perception and Design

    32. The graphic outline • The fundamental organisational elements: • The place – Europe. • The features – the two distributions. • The position of the features with respect to Europe. • The relative position of the two distributions. • (A): 1-2-3-4, (B): 2-3-4-1, (C): 3-1-4-2, (D): 4-2-3-1. • From Robinson, et al., 1995 Perception and Design

    33. Composition Explanatory aids such as titles, legends, scales, insets and direction indicators are also standard components of map composition. They may be arranged in various ways in the graphic organisation of a map. From Robinson, et al., 1995 Perception and Design

    34. Visual centre Actual centre Visual balance Left: The visual as opposed to the actual centre of a rectangle. Balancing is accomplished around the visual centre. Right: Visual balance. (A), (B), (C) and (D) show different degrees of balance. (A) and (B) are analogous to a child and an adult on a seesaw. (C) and (D) introduce relative density or visual weight, darker masses being heavier. From Robinson, et al., 1995 Perception and Design

    35. Sketches of a map Preliminary sketches of a map made in order to arrive at a desirable layout and balance. From Robinson, et al., 1995 Perception and Design

    36. Contextual items Examples of variations in the prominence of map legends. Note the operation of the principles of figure-ground relationships. From Robinson, et al., 1995 Perception and Design

    37. Colour • “Light”, or different colours, is a narrow frequency band within the electromagnetic spectrum. • Visible colours are electromagnetic wave with the wavelength of approximately 700nm (red) to 400nm (violet). Perception and Design

    38. millimetre centimetre metre 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 1010 1011 nm INVISIBLE INVISIBLE Gamma and X-rays Infrared Radio – Microwave - Television 400 500 600 700 nm UV Infrared VISIBLE LIGHT Electromagnetic spectrum Perception and Design

    39. Colour theory and models • Using colour on maps is one of the most interesting and challenging aspects of cartography. • Colour is a perceptual phenomenon, a product of our mental processing of electromagnetic radiation detected by our eyes. • A colour is measured by its hue, brightness (value) and saturation (chroma). Perception and Design

    40. Dominantwavelength (hue) e2 = e1:saturation = 0 e2 > 0 and e1 0:saturation  100% e2 Area  brightness P() energy density e1 400Violet 700Red  Wavelength (nm) Components of a colour Perception and Design

    41. The additive colour system Perception and Design

    42. The RGB colour model Blue = (0, 0, 1) Cyan = (0, 1, 1) White = (1, 1, 1) Magenta = (1, 0, 1) Black = (0, 0, 0) Green = (0, 1, 0) Red = (1, 0, 0) Yellow = (1, 1, 0) Perception and Design

    43. The subtractive colour system BGR G + R = Y -B BGR B + R = M -G BGR G -B -R Perception and Design

    44. The CMY colour model The Relation between RGB and CMY C = 1 - RM = 1 - GY = 1 - B Perception and Design

    45. YIQ colour model • Used in US commercial colour television broadcasting. • The Y component of YIQ is not yellow but luminance, and is defined to be the same as the CIE Y primary. • The chromaticity is encoded in I and Q. • The RGB-to-YIQ mapping is defined as: Perception and Design

    46. The HSI colour model • Colour (hue). • Purity (saturation). • Brightness (intensity). • The HSI coordinates are derived using the RGB colour cube with axes redefined according to the shade of colour, the purity of colour and the brightness of colour. Perception and Design

    47. The HSI colour model (cont.) Perception and Design

    48. HSV colour model HSV System - User-oriented system, being based on the intuitive appeal of the artist’s tint, shade and tone. Perception and Design

    49. HLS colour model HLS System - is defined in the double-hexcone subset of a cylindrical space. Perception and Design

    50. Patterns • Commonly used as a qualitative area symbol for depicting area features. • Also used to add graphic distinctiveness to uniformly coloured areas, especially on maps with a large number of classes. Perception and Design