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Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202) Lecturer 8 19 th Century Architecture (Part 3) Bauhaus Theory PowerPoint Presentation
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Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202) Lecturer 8 19 th Century Architecture (Part 3) Bauhaus Theory

Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202) Lecturer 8 19 th Century Architecture (Part 3) Bauhaus Theory

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Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202) Lecturer 8 19 th Century Architecture (Part 3) Bauhaus Theory

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  1. University of Palestine Faculty of Applied Engineering & Urban Planning Dept. of Architecture, Interior Design & Planning Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202) Lecturer 8 19th Century Architecture (Part 3) Bauhaus Theory Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 31.03.2009

  2. Background to the Bauhaus School • The Bauhaus School of thought was established in East Germany, first in Weimar and then moved to Dassau immediately after the 1st World War. • It became the greatest school for modern art, as it has faced design in a realistic way by linking the attitude of industrialization with effect of using the modern technology in the design largely hold by structural engineers and the art context approaching architecture issues. • Its aims are: • Organize creative efforts both in arts and design; • Develop skills of artists, designers and craftsmen; and • The future of arts is well integrated with both science and architecture deeming essential all efforts. • They never thought to build up their own style of architecture, although some who made an attempt to follow on. Bauhaus School Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 31.03.09

  3. Bauhaus Principles • Create new buildings primarily for the future that will embrace architecture, sculpture and painting in one unity. • Architects, painters and & others must recognize the new composite character of a building as a single entity. • New methods of teaching were actually developed based on working within a team. • Students have to attend workshops learning about natural properties of wood, stone, metals, glass and other materials of key concern to be used for the furniture, chairs, offices equipment, & etc. • It was developed a new technique within industry related to the design: such as the use of Playwood in producing wood furniture smoothening fixing and taking it apart. Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 31.03.09

  4. Bauhaus Principles • Students study a subject and make a true model within the workshop, followed by studying the philosophy of mass production. • The school should remain open to influences of all contemporary movements, without following one particular style. • Liberation of architecture from ornament, with much emphasis on its structural function, in addition to the concentration on concise and economical solutions. • The school has introduced the study of acoustic in addition to building protection from sun heat that was done by Adolf Meyer. Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 31.03.09

  5. The BAUHAUS - Gropious • Immediately after the war, Walter Gropious was asked to run two institutions, united in 1919 and announced as the “ Bauhaus “ . • He was not only an architect, but also a sociologist: He sought to design city dwellings considering environmental criteria: such as natural lighting, space, ventilation & green areas. Living quarters, Hansa area, Berlin Tall buildings were designed as apartments blocks; arranged not parallel to streets but much oriented to the sun and wind circulation, facilitated with open garden that is allocated between the blocks. Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 31.03.09

  6. The BAUHAUS - Gropious • “ Neither me nor my collaborates of the Bauhaus had the idea of reaching a style. My notion is to avoid the usual teaching where the director or teacher produces small editions of himself “. • “ We want our architecture adapted to our world of machines .. “. • His buildings are distinguished by the use of modern materials, including steel, concrete and large areas of glass in elevations, having flexibility adopted to function and excellence of proportions. Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 31.03.09

  7. The BAUHAUS - Gropious • Gropious encouraged the application of standardization and pre-fabrication. • “ The form of modern building should be clearly distinguished from the massiveness of masonry structures, known as Mass Production. Left Germany to GB and worked with the architect “ Maxwell Fry” on many projects. Invited to manage the Dept. of Arch. at Harvard Univ. (USA) and there practiced the profession with “ Marcel Breuer” who designed furniture out of steel & pipes carom. In 1945 , he formed a team of eight architects titled as Collaborative (TAC) who designed the US embassy in Athens & University Compound in Baghdad. Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 31.03.09

  8. The BAUHAUS – Gropious’ Style Refused buildings having a pre-conceptual form limiting thought & preventing any development of design. Criticised others for repetition of forms having ideas on still stand throughout the design process: as happened with curtain walls method making buildings much similar in their design though different functions. Sought to have a design coming from each building’s condition and function while avoiding the use of too much technology causing the lose of feeling & connection. University Compound in Baghdad Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 31.03.09

  9. THE BAUHAUS – School building at Dassau Glazed elevation designed for the workshops Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 31.03.09

  10. THE BAUHAUS –Dassau It is a complex building included a block for the school and another for workshops joined by a suspended bridge housing the administrative offices. Allow building with large rooms for communal life . Organization of geometric form using white plaster for emphasis. Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 31.03.09

  11. The BAUHAUS –Dassau An impressive and distinguished building, adopting to both human scale & rigorously keeping to technology. Succeeded in giving architecture unity by: • Consistent vocabulary of form. • Clear differentiation between building masses, according to function. Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 31.03.09

  12. The School’s Style • Characterized by free design using large surfaces of glass in elevation no matter what the structural components are. • Introduced new way to use materials according to their natural character as well as methods of construction, known as ‘Curtain Walls’, that was later used widely in the US. Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 31.03.09