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giant axon. central nervous system. associative neurons. brain. brain. ventral nerve cords. nerve cords. peripheral nerves. radial nerve. nerve ribs. nerve net. Mollusk. Earthworm. Arthropod. Flatworm Platyhelminthes. Cnidarian. Echinoderm. SISTEM SARAF HEWAN.

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slide1

giant

axon

central nervous system

associative

neurons

brain

brain

ventral

nerve cords

nerve cords

peripheral

nerves

radial nerve

nerveribs

nerve

net

Mollusk

Earthworm

Arthropod

FlatwormPlatyhelminthes

Cnidarian

Echinoderm

SISTEM SARAF HEWAN

slide2

Kumpulan Neuron

Saraf korda

Saraf radial

Saraf rusuk

Saraf jalat

Cacing PipihPlatyhelminthes

Cnidarian

Echinodermata

Cefalisasi = EvolusiOtak

  • Cephalization= clustering of neurons in “brain” at front (anterior) end of bilaterally symmetrical animals

 where sense organs are

More organization

but still based on nerve nets; supports more complex movement

Simplest, defined central nervous system

more complex muscle control

Simplest nervous system

no control of complex actions

slide3

Sistem Saraf Pusat

Akson Raksasa

Otak

Otak

ventral

nerve cords

Sistem Saraf Tepi

Molluska

Cacing Tanah

Arthropoda

Cefalisasi = EvolusiOtak

  • Interneuron bertambahbanyakdidalamOtak

More complex brains

connected to all other parts of body by peripheral nerves

More complex brains in predators

most sophisticated invertebrate nervous system

Further brain development

ganglia = neuron clusters along CNS

slide4

Shark

Frog

Crocodile

Cat

Human

Spinal cord

Hind: Medulla oblongata

Hind: Serebellum

Optic tectum

Bird

Midbrain

Fore: Serebrum

Organ Olfaktori

EvolusiOtak Vertebrata

Otak Depan

Otak DepanSerebrum Dominan

Otak Belakang

Otak Depan

slide7

PembagianFungsionalOtak

  • Otak Belakang (Hind Brain)
    • Mengendalikan Fungsi Autonomi dan Integratif
    • Batang Ptak
      • pons
      • medulla oblongata
      • Otak tengah
    • Serebellum
    • Thalamus, Hipothalamus
slide8

BatangOtak

  • The “lower brain”
    • medulla oblongata
    • pons
    • midbrain
  • Fungsi:
    • homeostasis
    • Koordinasi Pergerakan
    • Konduksi Impuls ke Pusat Otak
slide9

Medulla oblongata & Pons

  • Kontrol Fungsi Otonomi Homeostatis
    • Aktivitas pembuluh darah dan jantung
    • Pernafasan
    • Menelan
    • Muntah
    • Pencernaan
  • Relay Informasi dari
  • dan ke Pusat Otak
slide10

Otak Tengah

  • Terlibat dalam integrasi informasi sensori
    • pengendalianvisual reflexes
    • Pengendalian informasiauditory reflexes
slide11

Formasi Reticular

  • Tidur & pola kebugaran aktivitas elektrik di dalam otak
    • Dilaporkan sebagai ElectroEncephaloGram (EEG)
    • Umumnya bermimpi terjadi selama REM(rapid eye movement) sleep
slide12

satu sentimeter kubik otak manusia mengandung lebih dari 50 juta sel saraf, yang masing-masing bisa berkomunikasi dengan ribuan neuron lain dalam jaringan kerja pengolahan informasi

  • saraf dikhususkan untuk transmisi impuls dengan cepat, secepat 150 m/detik (lebih dari 330 mil per jam)
slide13

Gambaran Umum Sistem Saraf

Analog dengan telepon

  • Berfungsi Sebagai:
  • Input Sensori
  • Integrasi
  • Output Motoris

SISTEM SARAF

Tersusun atas Neuron dan sel-sel pendukung

slide14

SISTEM SARAF

SelSarafatauNeuronadalah Unit DasarKomunikasipadasistemsaraf Vertebrata

slide16

TigaKelas Neuron

  • Sirkuit Neural Terdiri Atas:
    • Sensory neurons
      • Reseptor rangsang
    • Interneuron (CNS)
      • Integrasi sinyal
    • Motor neuron
      • Transfer sinyal ke efektor (muscle)
slide18

Anatomi Neuron

  • Cell body: Bagian Fungsional
  • Dendrites: Ekstensi Pendek Penerima sinyal
  • Axon: Ekstensi Panjang yang menerima impuls
slide20

BagaimanaKerja Neuron MemegangdanMenggerakan Info?

  • Neuron pada waktu istirahat memiliki voltase berbeda dengan neuron menembus membran plasma, disebut “resting voltage potential”
  • Potensial Aksi(PA) terjadi apabila muatan menembus membran yang berubah secara singkat
  • Potensial Aksi bergerak ke bawah membran dengan cepat.
  • Potensial aksi dapat bergerak lebih cepat pada bagian yang bermyelin, disebut “saltatory conduction”
slide22

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

A. Polarisasi

K+

K+

K+

K+

ACh

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

B. Depolarisasi

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

C.Repolarisasi

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

K+

K+

Gb. Muatan Elektrik dan Konsentrasi Ion pada Sarcolemma

slide23

Table 7–1

State or Event Description

Resting Potential

Polarization • Sarcolemma has a () charge

outside and a () charge inside.

•Na� ions are more abundant

outside the cell; as they diffuse

inward, the sodium pump

returns them outside.

•K� ions are more abundant

Inside the cell; as they diffuse

out, the potassium pump

returns them inside.

Action Potential

Depolarization • ACh makes the sarcolemma very

permeable to Na� ions, which

rush into the cell.

• Reversal of charges on the sar-

colemma: now () outside and

() inside.

• The reversal of charges spreads

along the entire sarcolemma

• Cholinesterase at the sar-

colemma inactivates ACh.

Repolarization • Sarcolemma becomes very per-

meable to K� ions, which rush

out of the cell.

• Restoration of charges on the

sarcolemma: () outside and

() inside.

• The sodium and potassium

pumps return Na� ions outside

and K� ions inside.

• The muscle fiber is now able to

respond to ACh released by

another nerve impulse arriving

at the axon terminal.

slide24

SIFAT SINYAL SARAF

DENDRIT

AKSON

IMPULS

Impuls adalah sinyal listrik yg bergantung pada aliran ion yang menembus membran plasma neuron.

Potensial Membran disebabkan oleh perbedaan konsentrasi ion antara isi sel dengan cairan ekstraselluler

slide25

ImpulsSarafadalahSinyalBioelektrik

  • Pompa Sodium-Pottasium menggunakan ATP untuk mentransport ion sodium ke luar dan ion pottasium masuk ke dalam membran
  • Pada waktu neuron beristirahat memiliki muatan negatif relatif terhadap keadaan di luar membran
  • Potensial aksi reversal dan restorasi muatan berbeda yang menembus membran
  • Pompa sodium-potassium dapat menyimpan kembali persebaran original ion-ion
  • Potensial Aksi adalah “all-or-none events”
slide31

Transfer Informasidari Neuron ke Target

  • Synaptic transmission:
    • Mengeluarkan neurotransmitter: menaikan potential
      • Pengaruh neurotransmitter:
        • Excitatory: depolarisasi sel postsynaptic
        • Inhibitory: hiperpolarisasi sel postsynaptic
  • Peran postsynaptic neuron: integrasi dan proses informasi
slide32

Lokasi Reseptor

Akson Neuron Presynaptic

Inaktivator (Cholinesterase)

Vesicle Neurotransmitter

Na+

Na+

Na+

Dendrit Neuron Postsynaptic

Mitokondrion

Neurotransmitter (Acetylcholin)

Neurotransmitter yang teraktivasi

Gb. Impuls Transmisi pada Synapse

slide33

TipeKimiawi synapse

  • Acetylcholine: neuromuscular junctions, kelenjar, otak dan spinal cord
  • Norepinepherine: mempengaruhi bagian otak berkaitan dengan emosi dan mimpi
slide35

JalurAliranInformasi

  • Sinyal di antara Otak dan Spinal Cord bergerak ke bagian tubuh melalui sel saraf
  • Sensory nerves :sinyal bergerak ke arah Otak dan Spinal Cord
  • Motor neurons: menggerakkan sinyal dari Otak atau Spinal Cord ke Bagian tubuh
slide37

PembagianSistemSaraf

  • Sistem Saraf Pusat
  • (Central nervous system)
  • CNS
  • Otak dan Spinal Cord
  • Sistem Saraf Tepi
  • (Peripheral nervous system)
  • PNS
  • Semua saraf yang membawa sinyal ke dan dari CNS
slide40

Interneuron

Dorsal root

Central canal

Dorsal root ganglion

Synapse

Cell body of

sensory neuron

Dendrite of

sensory neuron

Gray Matter

Ventral root

Axon of motor neuron

Receptor

Cell Body of Motor Neuron

Synaptic knobs

Effector muscle

Gb. Cross-section of the spinal cord and the three types of neurons. Spinal nerve roots and their neurons are shown on the left side. Spinal nerve tracts are shown in the white matter on the right side. All tracts and nerves are bilateral (both sides).

QUESTION: The dorsal column is an ascending tract, and the corticospinal tract is descending. Explain what this means.

slide41

(2) Sensori Neuron

Dorsal Root Ganglion

(5)Quadriceps Femoris Muscle (Kontraksi)

Dorsal Root

(1) Stretc Receptor

Stimulus

Biceps Femoris Muscle (Rileks)

Gray Matter

Ventral Root

(4) Motor Neuron

(3) Synapse pada Spinal Cord

Gb. Repleks Patella