GSE Standards • SSWH1 Analyze the origins, structures, and interactions of societies in the ancient world from 3500 BCE/BC to 500 BCE/BC. • d. Identify the Bantu migration patterns and contribution to settled agriculture. • SSWH6 Describe the diverse characteristics of early African societies before 1500 CE/AD. • a. Describe the development and decline of the Sudanic kingdoms (Ghana, Mali, Songhai); include the roles of Sundiata, and the pilgrimage of Mansa Musa to Mecca. • b. Describe the trading networks and distribution of resources by examining trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, and slaves; include the Swahili trading cities. • c. Understand the blending of traditional African beliefs with new ideas from Islam and Christianity and their impact on early African societies.
Essential/DOK Questions • Where did the Bantu migrate to and how did they contribute to settled agriculture? • How did the Sudanic kingdoms develop and decline? • How did trading in North Africa work? • How did multiple religions blend with traditional African beliefs?
Bantus • Ethnic groups in south and middle Africa were known as Bantus because they share languages in the Bantu language group (Swahili is a common example). • 3000 years ago, these groups migrated from their traditional homes in West and Central Africa to Southern and Southeast Africa for unknown reasons. But they brought the idea of settled agriculture – growing crops on owned property.
Sudanic Kingdoms • Ghana was known as the “Golden Empire” for its gold trade – which was its downfall when Arabs attacked and conquered them. • Mali was known for its salt mines. Mali’s founder Sundiata, had a grandnephew Mansa Musa who was well known for his pilgrimage to Mecca. • Mali eventually collapsed during a civil war. • Songhai was known for its gold mines. It was conquered by a Moroccan army that possessed guns.
African Trading Systems • Caravans of 1,000 to 12,000 camels carrying goods would cross the Sahara desert to obtain trading materials and take them to the ports. • Gold, salt and slaves were traded. • The Sultan of Omar, who controlled the Swahili Slave Coast, gathered up slaves and kidnapped them to sell them to France and America. • The major Swahili trading cities were Mogadishu, Mombasa, Malindi, Zanzibar and Kilwa.
How African Beliefs Blended With Islam and Christianity • Christianity, brought by Roman soldiers, blended well with African beliefs about evil spirits and carrying symbols for protection. • Islam was brought by Muslim warriors and allowed Africans to maintain their beliefs about deities, ancestors and relationships between genders. • African societies often adopted these religions into their previous beliefs due to influence from members from high-society or rulers.
GSE Standards • SSWH1 Analyze the origins, structures, and interactions of societies in the ancient world from 3500 BCE/BC to 500 BCE/BC. • e. Explain the rise of the Olmecs. • SSWH8 Describe the diverse characteristics of societies in Central and South America. • a. Explain the rise and fall of the Mayan, Aztec, and Inca Empires. • b. Compare and contrast the Mayan, Aztec, and Incan societies, include: religion, culture, economics, politics, and technology.
Essential Questions • What led to the rise of the Olmecs? • How did the Mayan, Aztec and Incan civilizations rise and fall? • How do the Mayans, Aztecs and Incans compare when it comes to technology, religion, culture, economics and politics?
Olmec • First major society in Guatemala and Mexico. • Government – Oligarchy • Economy – Long distance trade of greenstone and marine shell • Religion – Shamanistic/Nature Mythology Gods • Art – Sculpture of humans and animals, known for the “big head” sculptures • Technology – hydraulic systems, water canals.
Mayans • Lived in southeastern Mexico; Guatemala and Belize. • Government – Monarchy, king thought himself divine. Political system did change over time. • Economy – Traded obsidian, salt, slaves, • Religion – Worshipped various gods, ancestors, human sacrifice. • Art – Usually worked in green or blue green, praised the ruler and royal court • Technology – 2 calendar systems, astronomy and advanced agriculture.
Aztecs • Lived in central Mexico. • Government – City-states • Economy – No money, used items for trade • Religion – Mythology based on nature, human sacrifice • Art – Songs and poetry, sculpture and jewelry • Technology – drills, canoes, astronomy.
Incas • Located in modern day Peru • Government – Divine Emperor who was head of the state and religion. The Chief Priest was second to the emperor. • Economy – Trade with other regions, taxes from each house, farming, bartering. • Religion – Believed in reincarnation; Death was a trip to a beautiful Heaven-like place. Human and child sacrifices to many nature gods. • Art – Architecture – Machu Picchu • Technology – vast architecture, textiles and pottery.
GSE Standards • SSWH10 Analyze the causes and effects of exploration and expansion into the Americas, Africa, and Asia. • a. Explain the roles of explorers and conquistadors. • b. Analyze the global, economic, and cultural impact of the Columbian Exchange. • c. Explain the role of improved technology in exploration • d. Examine the effects of the Transatlantic Slave Trade on Africa and on the colonies in the Americas.
Essential/DOK Questions • Who were the explorers and conquistadors who explored lands in the Americas, Asia and Africa? • What was the impact of the Columbian Exchange? • What new technology aided exploration? • How did the Trans-Atlantic slave trade affect the American colonies and Africa?
Zheng He and Vasco da Gama • Zheng He was a Chinese explorer who explored South and East Asia, Western Asia and East Africa. • Vasco da Gama was a Portuguese explorer and the first to reach India by sea. The discovery of the ocean route to India allowed Portugal to pursue colonial and trading empire in Asia.
Christopher Columbus and Ferdinand Magellan • Christopher Columbus was not the first to discover America but his voyages led to long-lasting European contact with the Americas and eventual colonization. • Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer who was the first to attempt to circumnavigate the Earth. He died in the process and his shipmate Juan Sebastian Elcano completed the circumnavigation of the Earth. • Astrolabes were used to predict the positions of the stars for navigation.
James Cook and Samuel de Champlain • James Cook was a British explorer who made the first European contact with the Hawaiian Islands, Australia and New Zealand. He was attacked and killed by Hawaiians. • Samuel de Champlain explored Canada and founded Quebec City. Lake Champlain (bordering Canada and the US) is named for him.
Columbian Exchange • The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of animals, plants, culture, human populations, technology, diseases and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade after Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage.
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade • Slavery, which already existed in Africa, became unfortunately worse as both Africans and Europeans captured and sold Africans into slavery. • West Africa’s population diminished severely and civil unrest was left in the wake of slavery. • Only 10% of slaves went to the Americas but demand grew as farms grew into plantations and other countries took interest in slave-supported agriculture.
GSE Standards • SSWH11 Examine political and social changes in Japan and in China from the fourteenth century CE/AD to mid-nineteenth century CE/AD. • a. Describe the impact of the Tokugawa Shogunatepolicies on the social structure of Japan. • b. Describe the impact of the Qing and Ming Dynasty policies on the social structure of China.
Essential/DOK Questions • What were the social and political changes in Japan under the Tokugawa Shogunate and in China under the Qing and Ming Dynasties?
Oda Nobunaga • A great warrior of Japan who united half of a broken, feudal Japan and established a stable government under his rule. • After his death, all of Japan was united under the Tokugawa Shogunate.
Tokugawa Shogunate - Japan • The Tokugawa Shogunate was the last Japanese military government which existed between 1603 and 1868. The heads of government were the shoguns, military dictators. • The Japanese used isolationism – a policy of remaining apart from the affairs of other groups – to protect their culture from Europeans coming to their lands.
Ming Dynasty • The Hongwu Emperor was the first and founding emperor of the Ming Dynasty. • He kept a standing army and large navy in his feudal society, stationing his many sons throughout China to control the area. • This failed but successors established Beijing as the capitol of China and, in later years, the modern Great Wall of China was completed.
Qing Dynasty • When the Ming Dynasty fell, China’s last dynasty, the Qing, was formed. • The longest reigning emperor, Emperor Kangxi, came to the throne at the age of 7 and ruled for 61 years. • He remained in power for so long because he oppressed his enemies and brought stability and wealth to China. • The Chinese also practiced isolationism to keep their culture pure. • Following this last dynasty, China’s next government is the Republic of China.
Population Growth - China • During the Qing Dynasty the population in China tripled, putting a strain on social services. China still refused to trade with outsiders so the people descended into poverty and discontent with the government. • This helped lead to the modern “one child” policy which has since been overturned.
Population Growth - Japan • During the Warring States Period and early Tokugawa Shogunate, agriculture increased dramatically and the population doubled over 100 years. • This put a strain on Japanese resources but also helped lead to the industrial period.
GSE Standards • SSWH12 Describe the development and contributions of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires. • a. Describe the development and geographical extent of the Ottoman, Safavid, and the Mughal Empires. • b. Describe the cultural contributions of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires.
Essential/DOK Questions • What were the origins, geographical extent and contributions of the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires?
Suleyman the Magnificent • Suleyman was the tenth and longest reigning sultan of the Ottoman Empire. • Known for marrying a woman from his harem and ordering one of his sons to be strangled to death. • From the Ottoman Empire we gained astronomical observatories and instruments, and geographers who created world maps.
Vlad the Impaler (Inspiration for Dracula) • Prince Vlad III of Wallachia, Romania was taken captive by the Ottoman Empire in 1442 and spent most of his youth as a well-treated prisoner. • After his release he grew to hate the Ottomans and throughout his life killed many of them, often impaling them and many of his other victims. • His impaled victims also turned back would-be invaders and protected his lands.
Geographical Extent of the Safavid Empire during the reign of Shah Abbas I
Shah Abbas • Shah Abbas also came to the throne during the height of the Safavid (Persian) Empire, and worked to recover lands the empire had lost. • He also killed and blinded his sons because they threatened his rule. • The Safavids enjoyed art, paintings and manuscript drawings.
Babur • Conqueror from Central Asia, descendant of Genghis Khan. • First Mughal Emperor and establisher of dynasty in Indian subcontinent. • He did not kill his sons! Who then took over rule after his death. • The Mughals gave India political unity, kept the balance of trade in favor of India and instituted a land revenue system that taxed property.
Akbar • Third Emperor of the Mughal Empire. • A strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent. • Adopted a policy of making conquered rulers happy through marriage deals and diplomacy. • Laid the groundwork for modern India and DID NOT kill his son!
GSE Standards • SSWH13 Examine the intellectual, political, social, and economic factors that changed the world view of Europeans from the sixteenth century CE/AD to the late eighteenth century CE/AD. • a. Explain the scientific contributions of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton and how these ideas changed the European worldview. • b. Identify the major ideas of the Enlightenment from the writings of Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau, and their relationship to politics and society.
Essential/DOK Questions • What were the scientific ideas of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Newton and the political/social/economic ideas of Locke, Voltaire and Rousseau that changed the ideas of Europeans?
Scientific Contributions • Copernicus was a Polish mathematician and astronomer who is most known for his model of the universe that placed the Sun, rather than the Earth, in the center. • Kepler was a German mathematician and astronomer who is most known for his works on the laws of planetary motion.
Scientific Contributions • Galileo was an Italian astronomer who is most known for discovering the moons around Jupiter and confirming the phases of Venus. He is considered the father of astronomy.
Sir Isaac Newton • British mathematician and physicist. • Co-creator of Calculus. • Formulated the laws of motion and gravitation. • These laws describe the relationship between any object, the forces acting upon it and the resulting motion. • Built the first reflecting telescope.
Enlightenment Ideas • John Locke was a British philosopher who influenced the “American Traitors,” or our Founding Fathers. He is known for writing “Two Treatises on Government” (which influenced the Declaration of Independence) and “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.”