United Nations in Peace and Security
United Nations (UN) PREAMBLE We, the people of the UNs are determined: • to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and • to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, …………. • to establish conditions under which justice and respect for …….. Ch-I: Article-1, The purpose of the UNs: • to maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace; • to develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for ……. • to achieve international co-operation in solving international problems o…….. • to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations ……….
Principal Organs of the UN • UN General Assembly Delebrtaive Assembly • UN Security Council Maint of Intl peace and security • UN Secretariat Administrative Organ (Fifth Committee - admin and budget , ACABQ – Advisory Cttee on Admin and Budgetory Questions, DPKO and DFS and DPA) • International Court of Justice Universal Court for International Law (The Hague) • UN Economic and Social Council Global economical and social affairs • UN Trusteeship Council Administering trust territories
UN Charter and SC Resolutions • The UN Charter is a multilateral treaty. It is the constitutional document that distributes powers and functions among the various UN organs. It authorizes the Security Council to take action on behalf of the members, and to make decisions and recommendations. The Charter mentions neither binding nor non-binding resolutions. • The UN's role in international collective security is defined by the UN Charter, which gives the SC the power to: -Investigate any situation threatening international peace; - Recommend procedures for peaceful resolution of a dispute; - Call upon other member nations to completely or partially interrupt economic relations as well as sea, air, postal, and radio communications, or to sever diplomatic relations; - Enforce its decisions militarily, or by any means necessary; - Avoid conflict and maintain focus on cooperation.
Provision in UN Charter Chapter-VI "Pacific Settlement of Disputes", the SC "may investigate any dispute, or any situation which might lead to international friction or give rise to a dispute". The Council may "recommend appropriate procedures or methods of adjustment" if it determines that the situation might endanger international peace and security. Are the SCR Binding ? Chapter-VII ‘ Enforcing peace’ : the Council has broader power to decide what measures are to be taken in situations involving "threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, or acts of aggression". In such situations, the Council is not limited to recommendations but may take action, including the use of armed force "to maintain or restore international peace and security". This was the legal basis for UN armed action in Korea in 1950 during the Korean war and the use of coalition forces in Iraq and Kuwait in 1991 and Libya in 2011. Decisions taken under Chapter Seven, such as economic sanctions, are binding on UN members.
Security Council Responsibility to protect SC Resolution 1674, (2006), "reaffirms the provisions of paragraphs 138 and 139 of the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document regarding the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity".Theresolution commits the Council to take action to protect civilians in an armed conflict. The Security Council's role in implementing the responsibility to protect is not limited to taking collective action against mass atrocities (pillar three of the responsibility to protect), but it can also make important contributions to structural and operational prevention of genocide, war, crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity (pillar two of the responsibility to protect).
Peace and Security in UN System Security Council (SC) • 15 members: five permanent members with veto power and ten non-permanent members, elected by the General Assembly (GA) for a two-year term. • SC has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. It has 15 Members, and each Member has one vote. Under the Charter, all Member States are obligated to comply with Council decisions. • The SC determines the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression. It calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by peaceful means and recommends methods of adjustment or terms of settlement. In some cases, the SC can resort to imposing sanctions or even authorize the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security. • The SC also recommends to the GA the appointment of the Secretary-General (SG) and the admission of new Members to the UN. And, together with the GA, it elects the judges of the International Court of Justice.
UN Peacekeeping(1948-2000) • Three core principles: • Consent of the parties to the presence of peacekeepers, • Impartiality in implementation of the peacekeeping mandate, • Very restricted use of force. • Self-defense to intervention: it now includes: • Defense of civilian non-combatants • Enforcement (defense) of the UN mandate • UN missions are now routinely referred to as “Peace Support Operations,” • Current UN missions have moved from Peacekeeping to Conflict prevention ,mediation, peacemaking, peace enforcement, and peace building activities. Peace Support Operations
Peace and Security in initial years • Peacekeeping missions began to support the UN’s founding purpose of • maintaining international security and ending the “scourge of war.” • Initial missions were: • 1.UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) in the Middle East Unarmed observers to report on the adherence to an armistice or peace agreement by former fighting states. • 2. UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) • UN Emergency Force (UNEF I) was deployed in 1956 to address the Suez Crisis. UN sent armed contingents. To emphasize their “peaceful” intent, they were called “peacekeepers,” with their purpose being to serve as a buffer between Israeli and Egyptian forces.
Sequence of events Security Council and UNSG Mission conceived by the SC Approved by the GA (GA resolution) Office of the UNSG Approved by the GA (GA resolution) Office of the UNSG Nomination of SRSG ( Political representation of the UNSG) Office of the UNSG Planning the Peacekeeping mission SRSG , DPKO and DFS –admin and log dpt Coord with UN offices, agencies and programs that will be involved in the ops and NGOs and activities working in the mission area. An Integrated Mission Task Force (IMTF) is est. Nomination of FC and PC Senior Management team; DPKO Confirm on TCC / PCC / Staffs Senior Management team; DPKO Preparation by TCC / PCC TCC are req and cfm
Sequence of events Visit of Conflict zone; decide on AO SRSG and senior mgmt team Signing of SoFA and MoU UNHQ and Host nation; UNHQ and TCC Troops lifting arrangement DPKO and TCC Preparation of logistics and admin DPKO Coordination with host nation SRSG , FC and TCC Arrival of advance team SRSG , FC and TCC Arrival of Staffs and troops SRSG , FC and TCC Mandate begins SRSG , FC and TCC Continuation of Mandate till the end DPKO, DFS, SRSG Termination of Mandate SC and UNSG
Some bitter facts 1994 Rwanda UN force stood by while over 800,000 people were killed in around 100 days during the 1994 genocide. 1992-1995 Somalia -UN mandate was under CH-VII to use "all necessary means" to guarantee the delivery of humanitarian aid. - Militia saw UN troops' presence as a threat to their hegemony. War broke between UN Soldiers and local tribe. - In 1993, US troops tried to capture Tribal leader Aidid and suffered heavy casualties. UN soldiers withdrew altogether from the country on March 3, 1995. 2005 Bosnia • In Bosnian war, UN forces were ineffective in enforcing both UN SC resolutions and maintaining agreed upon ceasefires by the combatants. Srebrenica was declared a “safe area,” . Dutch soldiers under UN failed to protect the inhabitants of the city. The city was overrun in July 2005 by Serb military forces and massacred approximately 7000 males of military age.
Lesson Learned Why did UN Missions failed? • Ill conceived and unclear mandate • Severe lack of resources (men and material) • Unwillingness to use force by TCC • Lack of interoperability, • TCCs looking for op-guidance from national capital Reform Steps • UN Diplomat and former Algerian Foreign Minister LakhdarBrahimi was appointed to lead a panel to look at ways to improve UN Peacekeeping, both at UN headquarters and in the field. • Brahimi submitted his Report in August 2000.
Brahimi Report Summary of Recommendations 1. Preventive action 2. Peace-building strategy 3. Peacekeeping doctrine and strategy 4. Clear, credible and achievable mandates 5. Information and strategic analysis 6. Transitional civil Admin 7. Determining deployment timelines 8. Mission leadership 9. Military personnel 10. Civilian police personnel 11. Civilian specialists 12 Rapidly deployable capacity for public information 13. Logistics support and expenditure mgmt 14. Funding Headquarters support for pko 15. Integrated mission planning and support 16. Other structural adjustments in DPKO 17. Operational support for public information 18. Peace-building support in the DPA 19. Peace operations support in the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights 20. Peace operations and the information age
Peace-building Commission UN’s Peace Building Commission, adopted in a resolution by the GA in 2005. The main purpose : “to bring together all relevant actors to marshal resources and to advise on and propose integrated strategies for post-conflict peace building and recovery.” Implications: • Bringing together all of the relevant actors, including international donors, the international financial institutions, national governments, TCC; • Marshaling resources • Advising on and proposing integrated strategies for post-conflict peacebuilding and recovery and where appropriate, highlighting any gaps that threaten to undermine peace.
Peace Support Office and Peace operation-2010 The Peace Support Office Established to assist and support the Peace building Commission, administer the Peace building Fund, and serve the SG in coordinating UN agencies in their peace building efforts. It contains a Support Section, Policy Planning Section, and a Financing for Peace building Section Currently, Burundi, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Central African Republic and Liberia are on the agenda of the Commission Peace Operations 2010 • New policies to recruit, train, and retain staff with an emphasis on senior mission leadership positions. • Called for plans on improving “leadership and management standards, with • clear guidance and policies for conduct and discipline. • Improve the integrated mission planning process at start-up and throughout the life cycle of a peace operation.
Department of Field Support Creation of Dept of Field support (DFS -2007) DPKO; provides political and executive direction to UN Peacekeeping operations around the world and works with Headquarters and the UN’s partners. DFS is to provide “support in the areas of finance, logistics, information, communication and technology (ICT), human resources and general administration to help missions promote peace and security. Secretary-General’s say, DFS is “responsible for delivering dedicated support to UN field operations, including on personnel, finance, procurement, logistical, communications, information technology and other administrative and general management issues.”Additionally, DFS would “be a provider of services to the DPKO and DPA” Global Field Support Strategy (GFSS) – 2010 Aims to further improve personnel, logistical, financial, and other support to field missions with speed and quality.
Capstone-2010 Capstone-2010 (Produced by DPKO in 2010) • It contains: • The Evolution of United Nations Peacekeeping • Planning United Nations Peacekeeping Operations • The Art of Successful Mandate Implementation Guheno: “Beyond simply monitoring cease-fires, today’s multi-dimensional peacekeeping operations are called upon to facilitate the political process through the promotion of national dialogue and reconciliation, protect civilians, assist in the DDR of combatants, support the organization of elections, protect and promote human rights, and assist in restoring the rule of law” Objectives “To ensure that the growing numbers of United Nations peacekeeping personnel deployed in the field, as well as those serving at Headquarters, have access to clear, authoritative guidance on the multitude of tasks they are required to perform”.
Successful UN Missions Capstone • Legitimacy : SC resolution • Credible by the host country population (help to deter spoilers and diminish the likelihood that a mission will need force to achieve its mandate) Must be credible, meaning it is deployed rapidly, is properly resourced, and has skilled personnel in place to “maintain a confident, capable and unified Posture. It also requires a “clear and deliverable mandate,” as well as a sound mission plan that is understood, communicated, and impartially and effectively implemented at every level. • The promotion of local and national ownership of the peace process. Peacekeeping, Peace-enforcing, Peace-making , Hybrid peace-keeping, Robust Peace-keeping and Multi-dimensional Peace-keeping are the mechanism of Peace-building and provide security so that the state building can start.
Conclusions General Assembly Fifth Committee and ACABQ Security Council Custodian of International Peace; Create Mandate by resolution Secretary General Implementation of the mandate by delegation of authority DPKO Implementer DPA Advisor and Implementer DFS Admin and Logistic Support UN Agencies/ Regional partners Complement and go in integrated way Reforms Brahimi report (2000), PB Commission-2005, DFS-2007 and GFSS-2010 by DFS, Capstone-2010. Peacekeeping to Peace building activities: Legitimacy, Credible, Capable, local ownership