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Training materials...

Training materials...

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Training materials...

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  1. Training materials... … some experiences Training of trainers course Agroforestry for improved land use and livelihood systems in southeast Asia 8-20 March 1999, Chiang Mai, Thailand

  2. The training cycle RESEARCH DIAGNOSIS EVALUATION IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEEDS Training materials IMPLEMENTATION TRAINING ACTION TRAINING OBJECTIVES TRAINING PLAN

  3. Identification TRAINING NEEDS CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT SUPPORTING TRAINING MATERIALS • EXISTING MATERIALS: • evaluate • adapt • NEW MATERIALS: • produce • test/evaluate USE

  4. Types of training materials • Written - printed materials • Textbooks, manuals, lecture notes, … • Audio/Visual materials • Projected (slides, film, video, transparencies,…) • Not projected (drawings, models, objects…) • Information technology • Distant learning • Internet/WWW

  5. Purpose of training materials • Generate interest with audience • Support teaching • Facilitate communication

  6. Role of training materials • Provide guidance: • trainer/teacher • learner • Illustrate • Gain time • Self-learning • Future reference

  7. Selecting training materials • Some experiences: • Use of ‘available’ materials • Content determines instruction • Materials are not field tested • Little time and effort in selection • Little knowledge about materials selection

  8. Selecting training materials How people learn

  9. TIME Selecting training materials BEST REAL EXPERIENCES CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES DEMONSTRATIONS EXHIBITS VIDEO/TV/FILM PICTURES WRITING SPEECH WORST

  10. Selecting training materials • Think about: • audience (size, level) • infrastructure required • equipment required • technicality • cost

  11. Characteristics ‘good’ materials • Developed for a specific purpose • Developed for a well-defined audience (educational level, experience, knowledge - existing/desired) • Clear teaching/learning objectives • Technically correct • Enhanced through ‘instructional components’ • Logically/systematically presented • Attractive • Evaluated & tested

  12. EXERCISE1- IDENTIFICATION • Working groups: (universities, extension, research, technical colleges) • Look at the ‘content’ (presentations and materials) of this training course • Propose the development of a training material for a ‘national course’ • Specify: title, format, audience

  13. Training materials Knowledge base Training materials Content Instructional component(s) = +

  14. Instructional components • Introduction • Curriculum planning • Instructional planning • Resources • Teaching • Learner application • Learner evaluation

  15. EXERCISE 2 - COMPONENTS • Take the example of the training material your group has proposed • Consider the list of ‘instructional components’ in the handout • Indicate which ones will be necessary for your training material • Rank the 10 most important ones in order of priority

  16. Instructional objectives • Performance: what the learner will be able to do; outcome • Conditions: under which the performance is expected to occur • Criterion: quality or level of performance that will be considered acceptable

  17. Example • ‘Understand the importance of experimental data management’ • Better: • To define data management in the context of agroforestry research • To list and explain three main important reasons for proper data management • To list and describe the main steps in the data management process • To recognize data management problems in an experiment

  18. Verbs - behavioral objectives • Sample tasks • Study skills • Analysis skills • Synthesis skills • General applications

  19. EXERCISE 3 - OBJECTIVES • Take the example of the training material proposed by your group • Look at the list of ‘behavioral verbs’ in the handout • Develop general/specific objective(s) for this material

  20. Some production models • Important steps in all models: • Needs identification • List desired criteria • Content • Resource persons • Review • Services • Testing/evaluation • Production/distribution

  21. Written materials - some tips • Correct content (peer review/proof reading) • Flow (logical/systematic) • Uniform style (editor) • Text not too dense (Keep It Short & Simple) • Illustrations (quality/quantity/type) • Practical format • Print/reproduction quality (DTP) • Think of a new edition

  22. Research on illustrations • Stimulate learner interest • Help reader learn • Simple line drawings more effective than photographs • B&W pictures reproduce better than colour • Sequence can show motion • Captions should clarify and reinforce message

  23. Audio-visuals • Overhead transparencies (most [mis]used) • Slides (text/pictures) • White/black board - flipcharts • Video/film • Photos, posters, drawings, models, objects

  24. Audio-visuals - tips • A means, not an end in itself • Supports, does not replace (complements written materials) • Quality: • Simplicity • Readability/visibility • Technically correct • Consistent • Quantity

  25. Evaluating training materials • Why evaluate? • Who evaluates? • What to evaluate? • Content • Format • How to evaluate?

  26. Evaluation - content • Target audience - level & utilization • Reading level • Correctness of content (current, accurate) • Instructional components • Essential information vs elaborations • Well-organized, logical • Well illustrated (quantity, quality) • Without propaganda or bias

  27. Evaluation - format • Equipment & infrastructure requirements • Quality, wear & tear, practical • Ease of use (instructional components) • Overall attractivenesss … some tools

  28. EXERCISE 4 - EVALUATION • Take the extensionist’s guideline entitled Imperata management for smallholders, or • alternatively, any other available training material • Use one, or several, of the tools in the handouts to evaluate this material