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The Writing Process. Sandra Brewer Language Arts Instructional Coach Muskogee Public Schools. The Writing Process. Prewriting Drafting Revising (add, subtract, substitute, move) Editing/Proofreading Publishing/Sharing. Prewriting. Brainstorming (list)

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Sandra Brewer Language Arts Instructional Coach Muskogee Public Schools

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The Writing Process

Sandra Brewer

Language Arts Instructional Coach

Muskogee Public Schools

OWP-S. Brewer

the writing process
The Writing Process
  • Prewriting
  • Drafting
  • Revising (add, subtract, substitute, move)
  • Editing/Proofreading
  • Publishing/Sharing

OWP-S. Brewer

  • Brainstorming (list)
  • Clustering/Mapping (5 senses, Basic, 5 W’s plus one)
  • Cubing (describe, compare, analyze, associate, apply, argue for or argue against)
  • Four square
  • Outlining
  • Quickwriting
  • Sketch to Stretch

OWP-S. Brewer

  • List unusual ways to use an object (fork, string)
  • List five of the most influential presidents
  • List three kinds of angles
  • List four team sports
  • List five individual sports
  • List the seven Wonders of the World

OWP-S. Brewer

clusters maps webs

 Clusters are weblike diagrams with the topic or nuclear word written in a circle centered on a sheet of paper.

 Main ideas are written on rays drawn out from the circle, and branches with details and examples are added to complete each main idea.

 Clusters are used to gather and organize information for learning.

 Clusters are used to organize ideas before beginning to write.

OWP-S. Brewer

basic cluster or map
Basic Cluster or Map

Trait # 1

Trait # 1


Trait #3

Trait #5

Trait # 4

OWP-S. Brewer

five senses cluster plus one
Five Senses Cluster plus one








OWP-S. Brewer

five w s plus one cluster
Five W’s plus one cluster








OWP-S. Brewer


Students study a topic from six viewpoints or perspectives

  • 1. Describe the topic, including its colors, shapes, and sizes.
  • 2. Compare the topic to something else. Consider how it is similar or different from this other thing/person.
  • 3. Associate the topic to something else and explain why the topic makes you think of this other thing.
  • Analyze the topic and tell how it is made or what it is composed of.
  • Apply the topic and tell how it can be used or what can be done with it.
  • 6. Argue for or against the topic. Take a stand and list reasons to support it.

OWP-S. Brewer

step by step for cubing
Step by Step for Cubing
  • Students or teacher chooses a familiar topic related to a theme.
  • Students divide into six small groups to examine the topic from one of the perspectives.
  • Students quickwrite on each perspective to brainstorm ideas.
  • Students share quickwrites with the class to allow for student to react and make connections.
  • Students construct the cube and display it.

OWP-S. Brewer

comparison contrast diagram
Comparison & Contrast Diagram

How Alike?

How Different?

OWP-S. Brewer

four square
Four Square

Write one reason.

Add three examples.

Add elaboration of one reason.

Write second reason.

Add three examples.

Add elaboration of one reason.

Take a stand based on a writing prompt. Brains-

Storm 3 supporting ideas and a concluding sentence

Write third reason.

Add three examples.

Add elaboration of one reason

Add hook to introduction

Add punch to conclusion

OWP-S. Brewer

four square from organizer to paper
Four Square:From Organizer to Paper
  • Add transitions to body paragraphs
  • Incorporate vivid language
  • Reread your work
  • Proofread for errors in mechanics
  • Prepare the final copy
  • Attach graphic organizer and rough draft

OWP-S. Brewer

  • I. War of 1912
    • Causes
  • 1.
  • 2.
    • B. Effects
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • II. Civil War
  • A. Causes
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • B. Effects
  • 1.
  • 2.

OWP-S. Brewer



Used for journal and impromptu writing

  • Also called “freewriting”
  • Focus on content rather than mechanics to allow students’ natural voices to come through. (Peter Elbow, 1973)
  • Students reflect on what they know about a topic by generating words and ideas and making connections among the ideas.
  • Students write for 5 to 10 minutes.

 Students share quickwrites in a small group

 One student from the group shares with the class.

Benefits of Quickwriting

 Stimulate interest

 Check what students already know

 Clarify misconceptions

 Find out what students are learning

 Assess what students have applied

OWP-S. Brewer/G. Tompkins

sketch to stretch

Sketch-to-stretch is a visually representing activity that moves students beyond literal comprehension to think more deeply about the characters, theme, and other elements of the story structure and the author’s craft in a story they are reading.

Students work in small groups to draw pictures or diagrams to represent what the story means to them, not pictures of their favorite character or episode

 Students use lines, shapes, colors, symbols, and words to express their interpretations and feelings.

Since they work together in groups, students share ideas with each other, extend their understanding, and generate new insights.

OWP-S. Brewer/G. Tompkins

steps for sketch to stretch
Steps for Sketch-to-Stretch

1. Read and respond to text.

2. Talk about the themes and ways to symbolize meanings.

3. Have students draw sketches.

4. Have students share their sketches with classmates.

5. Have some students share with the class.

6. Revise sketches and make final copies.

OWP-S. Brewer/G. Tompkins

what is revision
What is Revision?
  • Revision means to re-see the paper’s content.
  • Revision does not mean correcting spelling and mechanical errors.
  • Revision allows the writer to receive input from a peer and/or the teacher.
  • Revision allows the writer to add, delete, substitute, and move content in the paper.

OWP-S. Brewer

revision chart
Revision Chart

Word Phrase Sentence Paragraph





OWP-S. Brewer/C. Oaks

editing proofreading
  • Students focus on mechanics (spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar).
  • Students focus on writing complete sentences, avoiding fragments,comma splices, and run-ons.
  • Students use proofreader’s marks when editing.
  • Read the paper from the bottom to the top when editing. This way the student can focus on one sentences at a time out of contest. When reading from top to bottom, it is difficult to disregard the fluency and content of the paper.
  • Students should have dictionaries or access to spell check during this stage of the writing process.

OWP-S. Brewer

publishing sharing

Use an author’s chair in the classroom and allow students to read their work to the class.

Display the students’ final drafts in the classroom or in the hallway.

Send the best final drafts to the local newspaper for printing. Usually, the newspaper is looking for student writing during Veteran’s Day, Martin Luther King Day, Mother’s Day, Father’s Day, Christmas, Easter, and other special occasions.

Enter final draft in a local, state, or national contest.

OWP-S. Brewer