L 18 Thermodynamics . Heat transfer convection conduction radiation emitters of radiation seeing behind closed doors Greenhouse effect Heat Capacity How to boil water. Heat flow. HEAT the energy that flows from one system to another because of temperature differences.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
L 18 Thermodynamics  • Heat transfer • convection • conduction • radiation • emitters of radiation • seeing behind closed doors • Greenhouse effect • Heat Capacity How to boil water
Heat flow • HEAT the energy that flows from one system to another because of temperature differences. • But how does it flow? Three ways: • convection • conduction • radiation
Convection • heat is carried from place to place by the bulk movement of either liquids or gases • does not apply to solids • when water is boiled, hot liquid rises and mixes with cooler liquid, thus the heat is transferred • Hot air rises: • want heat into lower level of house (winter) • cooled air into upper levels (summer)
Conduction iron is a particularly poor conductor of heat • heat is transferred directly through a material, with no bulk movement of stuff • only energy moves
heat conduction Cross sectional area A L HOT COLD Heat Flow Heat Flow rate depends on A / L
Thermal Conductivity • The effectiveness of a material in conducting heat is characterized by a parameter called the thermal conductivity • there are good thermal conductors (metals) and poor ones (insulators)
radiation Heat as moving light • Radiation is the heat transfer by electromagnetic waves – thermal light waves - invisible to the eyes • thermal radiation is a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum – waves are characterized by their frequency or wavelength • different colors in the visible correspond to different wavelengths from red to blue
electromagnetic spectrum thermal radiation microwaves, cell phones TV radio waves x-rays visible
visible electromagnetic waves: LIGHT shorter wavelength more energy visible light thermal radiation UV radiation produces sunburn
Thermal Radiation • The warmth you feel from the sun is the sun’s thermal radiation • It travels through the vacuum of space to reach earth, no material is necessary (takes 8 minutes) • you can feel its effects even though you cannot see the radiation. • you can feel the thermal radiation from a fireplace
What produces thermal radiation? • all objects whose temperature is above absolute zero emit thermal radiation • The hotter the object, the more radiation it emits, the amount of radiation is ~ T4 • We all continuously emit thermal radiation • We also absorb it from objects and people around us • If we just emitted radiation we would eventually cool to absolute zero!
Thermal radiation spectrum • The intensity of radiation increases with temperature • the color shifts toward the blue at higher temperatures • The UV radiation from the sun is just beyond the violet
sources of thermal radiation tungsten filament, can get very hot and not melt • the incandescent light bulb ( the ones that have a filament) are sources of both visible light and heat. • when electricity flows through a wire it gets hot. • it emits radiation even though you can’t see it • as it gets hotter it glows red then orange then white evacuated glass bulb
Radiation emitted by hot objects • The hotter they are, the more they emit • the efficiency with which an object emits thermal radiation is characterized be a parameter called its emissive e • e is a number between 0 and 1 • a good emitter has an e close to 1 • a poor emitter has an e close to 0
good emitters are good absorbers • an object that is a good emitter is also a good absorber of thermal radiation • a poor emitter is also a poor absorber • generally dark, dull objects are the best emitters/absorbers • shinny objects are poor emitters/absorbers • If you do not want the edges of your pie to burn, you wrap it in aluminum foil
good/bad emitters-Leslie’s cube infrared radiation sensor copper cube filled with hot water this side is painted black
Practical considerations • wear light clothing in summer light clothing absorbs less sunlight • cover all body parts in winter warm body parts (like your head) emit radiation
thermal radiation • all objects that are at a temperature above absolute zero emit thermal radiation (waves) • the higher the temp, the more they emit • the color (wavelength) of the emitted waves goes from redorangeyellow blue as the temperature increases
seeing behind closed doors we can “see” behind closed doors because of the heat signature left by warm objects on walls Infrared sensors can pick up temp- erature differences of 0.05 degrees C.
http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/greenhouse/ The Greenhouse effect Sun’s visible light infrared radiation is trapped C O2 EARTH
Greenhouse effect • the sun’s visible light can penetrate through the atmosphere to the earth’s surface where it heats it • the visible light energy is converted to thermal light energy • the thermal radiation is reflected from CO2 in the atmosphere
Greenhouse effect • concentrations of CO2 have been increasing • rise in earth’s temperature • same effect occurs in your car during the day.
The ozone layer • ozone, O3 is a naturally occurring trace element in the atmosphere • It absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation, especially the harmful UV-B rays • it is destroyed by Cfc’s (chlorofluorocarbons) • loss affects us and environment
back to some practical topics
How do I boil water? • How much heat does it take to boil water? • Simpler question how much heat is required to raise the temperature of water by so many degrees? • The answer depends on how much water you have and how hot you want to get it • The answer would be different for a different material, say aluminum.
Heat Capacity or specific heat • The heat capacity is the amount of heat that is required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1 degree C. • it is measured in Calories • for water it is 1 cal/g °C • heat Q = m • c • temp change hot plate mass of sample specific heat