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Ancient Greece. Origins of Western Civilization. Ancient Greece Time Line. BRONZE AGE (3000-1150) c. 1650-1200                Mycenaean Civilization c. 1250-1220                “The Trojan War” c. 1200-1150                Collapse of Mycenaean Civilization DARK AGE (1100-850)

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ancient greece

Ancient Greece

Origins of Western Civilization

ancient greece time line
Ancient Greece Time Line

BRONZE AGE (3000-1150)

c. 1650-1200                Mycenaean Civilizationc. 1250-1220                “The Trojan War”c. 1200-1150                Collapse of Mycenaean Civilization

DARK AGE (1100-850)

c. 1050-950                   Greek colonization of Asia Minor (western coast of Turkey)c. 900                            Beginning of the rise of the polis (city-state)

ARCHAIC PERIOD (800-490)

c. 800-700                     Rise of the aristocracies    776                            Olympic Games establishedc. 750                            Greek colonization of Southern Italy and Sicily beginsc. 720                            Homer, Iliadc. 700                            Homer, Odyssey ; Hesiod, Theogony and Works and Daysc. 680                            Archilochus (lyric poet)c. 650                            Greek colonization around the Black Sea begins    621                            Draco’s code of law in Athensc. 600                            Sappho (lyric poet); Thales (philosopher)    594-593                     Archonship of Solon in Athens    545-510                     Tyranny of the Peisistratids in Athens    533                            Thespis wins first tragedy competition at Athens    508                            Cleisthenes reforms the Athenian Constitution

slide3

CLASSICAL PERIOD (490-323)

    490-479                     Persian War    458                            Aeschylus, Oresteia    461-429                     Pericles dominant in Athenian politics; the “Age pf Pericles”c. 450-420                     Herodotus composes his Histories of the Persian War.    447                            Parthenon begun in Athens    441                            Sophocles, Antigone    431-404                     Peloponnesian War (Athens and allies vs. Sparta and allies)    429                            Pericles dies    429?                          Sophocles, Oedipus the Kingc. 424-400                     Thucydides writes the History of the Peloponnesian War    411                            Aristophanes, Lysistrata    404                            Athens loses Peloponnesian War to Sparta    399                            Trial and death of Socratesc. 399-347                     Plato writes his philosophical dialogues                 335-323                     Aristotle writes his philosophical treatises

geography of greece
Geography of Greece
  • Peninsula as well as a chain of islands known as an_______________
  • Very limited farm land
  • Only about 20% of the land was ____________
  • Bodies of water include Mediterranean Sea, _______ ,_____________,_______________
early history
Early History
  • Minoans-lived on the island of ________ around 2000 BC
  • Mycenaean Civilization develops around 2000 BC on the mainland of Greece
  • The city of Mycenae was fortified
  • They were ruled __________from 1600-1200 BC
end of the minoans and mycenae
End of the Minoans and Mycenae
  • Warfare caused the end of the two civilizations
  • The ________ followed 1200-700BC
  • Stopped making bronze but discovered iron
  • Period of ________ and disorder emerged
  • _________-War between Greece and Troy
homer
Homer
  • Author of the _______ and the ________
  • Blind Poet-________
  • Describes the ______ ________ and reflects the culture and beliefs of the period
  • Two of the most important poems ever written
types of government in greece
Types of Government in Greece
  • _______ - Government ruled by land-owners.
  • _______ -Government by which a small group of un-elected leaders rule
  • _______ -Government where the citizens make the laws. and democracies can exist
  • _______ - ruled by a king
  • _______ - Government under the control of one man, a who convinces people to support him in an overthrow of the government. They often gave away money or land to the common people to gain their support over the wealthy class
sparta the military state
Sparta The Military State
  • _______ - _______ of the Spartans who rebelled against them. It took _years for the Spartans to put down the rebellion. This caused them to create a state completely dedicated to security.
  • Government- Two kings elected every 9 years and a council of _______ (28 men over the age of 60)and an _______ of Spartan citizens over the age of 30 who would advise the king. Real power was held by the _______ which made Sparta an _______
  • Spartans believed that people existed to support the state not the other way around.
spartan military
Spartan Military
  • At the age of _______ boys taken from families to military training camps
  • At age _______ they began training for combat they lived very simple lives marching all day wearing no shoes, sleeping on hard benches and eating black porridge.
  • Spartan girls also lived hearty lives learning to fight and defend themselves. They managed the estate while their husbands were at the polis. They had no right to vote but had many more rights than in any other Greek .
  • Spartans had very few personal freedoms they valued strength, duty, and
athens birthplace of democracy
Athens Birthplace of Democracy

• _______ - Instituted a harsh system of laws that included ______________

  • Solon: reformed Athenian law, _______ debt slavery, created more fairness in government, gave more rights to commoners.
  • Pisistratus- took land from the wealthy and gave it to the poor. Many works projects he instituted gave jobs to the poor as well as giving loans to the poor. Diminished _______
  • Democracy: Cleisthenes creates a _______ where common people have a voice in making all the laws of Athens
democratic and yet not
Democratic and Yet not
  • Freedom of Speech, and equality before the law as well as trial by jury.
  • Male Citizens over 18 directly vote on all the laws.
  • But they owned women had no voice and neither did foreigners.
unifying forces

2

Unifying Forces

Local ties, independent spirit, and economic rivalries led to fighting among the Greek city-states. Despite these divisions, the Greeks shared a common culture.

  • They honored the same ancient _______.
  • They participated in common festivals.
  • They prayed to the same _______.
  • They shared the Greek _______.
  • They felt superior to non-Greeks, whom they called “__________,” people who did not speak Greek.
persian wars causes
Persian Wars-Causes
  • Persia builds huge that included some Greek colonies like Ionia
  • ________ rebels and is aided and encouraged by Athens
  • It takes Persia 5 years to put down the rebellion.
  • _________- king of Persia sets out to teach Athens a lesson for inciting the Ionians
persian war battles
Persian War Battles
  • Battle of__________-Persians out number Athenians 2-1 but the Athenians using the Greek out maneuver their opponents and defeat the much larger army
  • 10 years later __________ son of Darius invades with much larger force
  • Battle of ____________- 300 Spartans hold off thousands Persians for days while Athens builds up a force.
  • Battle of __________: Naval battle where Athens rams holes into the ships of the Persians sinking 1/3 of the Persian fleet. Virtually ending the war.
results of the persian war
Results of the Persian War
  • Greece enters a ____________ unthreatened by a foreign invader
  • Advancements in science and architecture and __________
  • Greece become a dominant world power
  • Athenian Democracy flourishes
  • Persia declines as a world power
the age of pericles

3

The Age of Pericles

After the Persian Wars, Athens enjoyed a golden age under

Pericles.

  • Periclean Athens was a _____________. In this form of government, large numbers of citizens take part in the day-to-day affairs of government.
  • This meant that Athenian men participated in the assembly and served on ___________.
  • Pericles hired architects and sculptors to rebuild the _______, which the Persians had destroyed.
  • Pericles turned Athens into the cultural center of Greece. He did this with the help of an educated, foreign-born woman named Aspasia.
the age of pericles continued
The Age of Pericles continued
  • _____________- Marked my technological and scientific advancements as well as a time of flourishing education and relative peace and prosperity
  • Architecture and Art: Parthenon, pillars, _______ ( statues depicting Greek gods and heroes), Pottery depicting every day Greek life
  • Drama: Tragedies, Promethus Bound,Orestia, Oedepus, Medea and Comedies by such as Lysisrata and The Birds
science and math
Science and Math
  • _______ - Theorem explaining relationships of right triangles and the origins of trigonometry.
  • Greek astronomers determined the - _______ of the earth and the distance from earth to moon and other planets.
  • Democritus- theory of atoms
  • Hypocrites- Father of medicine and the
the masters
The Masters

SOCRATES

PLATO

ARISTOTLE

Developed Socratic method, whereby a

series of questions are posed in order to challenge implications of answers

Emphasized importance of reason

Believed the ideal state should regulate every aspect of citizens’ lives to provide for their best interest

Favored rule by single strong and virtuous leader

Taught that good conduct meant pursuing moderation

philosophy
Philosophy
  • Means love of ____________
  • Socrates- ____________ , stressed the pursuit of goodness. Question everything. This led to his eventual execution
  • Plato-Student of Socrates, established the __________, He also questioned things and wrote a book called the __________which defended aristocracy over democracy ruled by philosopher kings.
  • Aristotle-Student of Plato who invented ____________ , biology, zoology, he was a mathematician, a philosopher, and astronomer. He was also the personal tutor of _________ the _________ . He is regarded by many as the smartest man who ever lived.
goal 1 to make athens a stronger democracy
Goal 1To make Athens a stronger Democracy
  • He increased the number of public officials and increased the pay given to them and had leaders chosen by _________
  • He introduced _________ democracy where all male citizens could vote in the assembly on all the laws as well as debate them and put forth protests and grievances
goal 2 to expand the athenian empire and increase its wealth and prosperity
Goal 2To expand the Athenian Empire and increase its wealth and prosperity
  • He used money from the _________ (countries that paid protection money to Athens and who were allied with her) to build a 200 ship navy which made it the most powerful naval power in the Mediterranean. This also secured their trade and economy
goal 3 glorify athens
Goal 3 GlorifyAthens
  • Use the wealth gained from a strong empire to beautify the city of Athens with great works of art and architecture. He used gold and marble and ivory to build one of architecture’s noblest works- the _________
drama
Drama
  • Based on myths and legends as well as historical events
  • Plays dealt with the most important human feelings and ideas
  • There were comedies as well as _________ .
  • Famous works include:Prometheus Bound and the Oresteia by Aeschylus, Medea by Euripides, Antigoneand Oedipus by_________ , even comedies like Lysistrata and The Birds by Aristophanes
greek styles in art
Greek styles in Art
  • Simplicity using fluted columnsmaking them seem taller and thinner than they actually were
  • _________ (decorative carved bands on walls)
  • Sculptures of Greek athletes and gods and the most _________ and near perfect forms
  • Artists painted scenes from everyday life on walls and pottery
the writing of history

4

The Writing of History

The Greeks applied reason, observation, and__________to the study of history.

__________is called the “Father of History.”

Herodotus stressed the importance of research, while Thucydides showed the need to avoid __________.

Herodotus and Thucydides set standards for future historians.

the peloponnesian war
The Peloponnesian War
  • Causes: The_________ which had been a military alliance in the Persian War was being used by _________ to make Athens the most powerful city state in Greece demanding large sums of_________ from its members and taking many Greek lands by force
  • _________ led a group of city-states in a war against Athenian expansion
  • Results: With the help of Italian states, _________ support, a devastating plague as well as Athens refusal to accept a negotiated peace Sparta eventually defeats Athens.
results of the peloponnesian war
Results of the Peloponnesian War
  • _____________ becomes the most powerful city state in Greece but is greatly weakened from years of fighting.
  • ___________ends in Athens
  • A weakened Sparta is defeated by Thebes which set off ___________ throughout Greece.
  • This would allow a foreign power from the north, __________ , to sweep in, conquer and ________ most of Greece.
the peloponnesian war1
Many Greeks outside of Athens resented Athenian domination.

Sparta formed the Peloponnesian League to rival the Delian League.

Sparta encouraged oligarchy, while Athens supported democracy.

Athenian domination of the Greek world ended.

Athens recovered economically and remained the cultural center of Greece.

Democratic government suffered.

Corruption and selfish interests replaced older ideals such as service to the city-state.

3

The Peloponnesian War

EFFECTS

CAUSES

the rise of the macedonians
The Rise of the Macedonians

Philip II of Macedonia (359 B.C.)

A. Brilliant king

1. Mobilized and trained army of peasants

2. Ruthless and fearless

3. Shrewd general

B. Victory over Greece

1. Defeats Greeks at Battle of Chaeronea

2. Greeks now ruled by Macedonia

a. Local affairs still run by Greeks

3. Plans to attack Persia, but is assassinated

alexander of macedonia 334 b c
Alexander of Macedonia (334 B.C.)
  • Ambitious Plans
    • Well trained in philosophy, military techniques, science, geography, and literature.
    • Strong combat and horse riding skills
    • Only 20 years old
  • Conquers Persia
    • Using surprising and aggressive tactics is able to defeat Persians
        • Battle of Granicus
        • Battle of Issus
        • Phalanx / Calvary charge
alexander the great

5

Alexander the Great

Philip of Macedonia conquered Greece. He was assassinated before he could fulfill his dream of conquering the Persian empire.

Philip’s son, Alexander, succeeded him to the throne.

Alexander won his first victory against the Persians at the Granicus River. He then conquered Asia Minor, Palestine, Egypt, and Babylon.

Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush into northern India. There his troops faced soldiers mounted on war elephants. They were forced to retreat.

While planning his next battle campaign, Alexander died of a sudden fever. Three generals divided up the empire.

the legacy of alexander

5

The Legacy of Alexander

Although Alexander’s empire did not last, he had unleashed changes that would ripple across the Mediterranean world and the Middle East for centuries.

  • Alexander’s most lasting achievement was the spread of Greek culture.
  • Across the empire, local people ____________, or absorbed, Greek ideas. In turn, Greek settlers adopted local customs. Gradually, a blending of eastern and western cultures occurred.
  • Many Persians and foreigners included in Alexander’s armies
  • Vibrant new______________Culture emerged
  • Alexander had encouraged this blending by marrying a Persian woman and adopting Persian customs.
alexander s end
Alexander’s End
  • A. Alexander dies at 32
  • 1. Empire is split up
  • a. Antigonus (Macedonia)
  • b. Ptolemy (Egypt)
  • c. Seleucus (Most of old Persian Empire)
  • B. Spread of Greek ideas
  • 1. Many Persians and foreigners included in Alexander’s armies
  • 2. Unique blend of Eastern and Greek ideas
  • 3. Vibrant new culture emerged (Hellenistic Culture)
great minds of the hellenistic period

5

Great Minds of the Hellenistic Period

Zeno founded_________, which urged people to accept calmly whatever life brought.

Pythagoras derived a formula to calculate the relationship between the sides of a__________.

Euclid wrote ________a textbook that became the basis for modern geometry.

Aristarchus theorized about a_________, or sun-centered, solar system.

Eratosthenes showed that the Earth was ________and accurately calculated its circumference.

Archimedes used principles of physics to make practical inventions, such as the lever and the pulley.

__________studied illnesses and cures and set ethical standards for medical care.