Ancient Greece. Origins of Western Civilization. Ancient Greece Time Line. BRONZE AGE (3000-1150) c. 1650-1200 Mycenaean Civilization c. 1250-1220 “The Trojan War” c. 1200-1150 Collapse of Mycenaean Civilization DARK AGE (1100-850)
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Origins of Western Civilization
BRONZE AGE (3000-1150)
c. 1650-1200 Mycenaean Civilizationc. 1250-1220 “The Trojan War”c. 1200-1150 Collapse of Mycenaean Civilization
DARK AGE (1100-850)
c. 1050-950 Greek colonization of Asia Minor (western coast of Turkey)c. 900 Beginning of the rise of the polis (city-state)
ARCHAIC PERIOD (800-490)
c. 800-700 Rise of the aristocracies 776 Olympic Games establishedc. 750 Greek colonization of Southern Italy and Sicily beginsc. 720 Homer, Iliadc. 700 Homer, Odyssey ; Hesiod, Theogony and Works and Daysc. 680 Archilochus (lyric poet)c. 650 Greek colonization around the Black Sea begins 621 Draco’s code of law in Athensc. 600 Sappho (lyric poet); Thales (philosopher) 594-593 Archonship of Solon in Athens 545-510 Tyranny of the Peisistratids in Athens 533 Thespis wins first tragedy competition at Athens 508 Cleisthenes reforms the Athenian Constitution
490-479 Persian War 458 Aeschylus, Oresteia 461-429 Pericles dominant in Athenian politics; the “Age pf Pericles”c. 450-420 Herodotus composes his Histories of the Persian War. 447 Parthenon begun in Athens 441 Sophocles, Antigone 431-404 Peloponnesian War (Athens and allies vs. Sparta and allies) 429 Pericles dies 429? Sophocles, Oedipus the Kingc. 424-400 Thucydides writes the History of the Peloponnesian War 411 Aristophanes, Lysistrata 404 Athens loses Peloponnesian War to Sparta 399 Trial and death of Socratesc. 399-347 Plato writes his philosophical dialogues 335-323 Aristotle writes his philosophical treatises
Athens and Sparta
• _______ - Instituted a harsh system of laws that included ______________
Local ties, independent spirit, and economic rivalries led to fighting among the Greek city-states. Despite these divisions, the Greeks shared a common culture.
After the Persian Wars, Athens enjoyed a golden age under
Developed Socratic method, whereby a
series of questions are posed in order to challenge implications of answers
Emphasized importance of reason
Believed the ideal state should regulate every aspect of citizens’ lives to provide for their best interest
Favored rule by single strong and virtuous leader
Taught that good conduct meant pursuing moderation
The Greeks applied reason, observation, and__________to the study of history.
__________is called the “Father of History.”
Herodotus stressed the importance of research, while Thucydides showed the need to avoid __________.
Herodotus and Thucydides set standards for future historians.
Sparta formed the Peloponnesian League to rival the Delian League.
Sparta encouraged oligarchy, while Athens supported democracy.
Athenian domination of the Greek world ended.
Athens recovered economically and remained the cultural center of Greece.
Democratic government suffered.
Corruption and selfish interests replaced older ideals such as service to the city-state.
3The Peloponnesian War
Philip II of Macedonia (359 B.C.)
A. Brilliant king
1. Mobilized and trained army of peasants
2. Ruthless and fearless
3. Shrewd general
B. Victory over Greece
1. Defeats Greeks at Battle of Chaeronea
2. Greeks now ruled by Macedonia
a. Local affairs still run by Greeks
3. Plans to attack Persia, but is assassinated
Philip of Macedonia conquered Greece. He was assassinated before he could fulfill his dream of conquering the Persian empire.
Philip’s son, Alexander, succeeded him to the throne.
Alexander won his first victory against the Persians at the Granicus River. He then conquered Asia Minor, Palestine, Egypt, and Babylon.
Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush into northern India. There his troops faced soldiers mounted on war elephants. They were forced to retreat.
While planning his next battle campaign, Alexander died of a sudden fever. Three generals divided up the empire.
Although Alexander’s empire did not last, he had unleashed changes that would ripple across the Mediterranean world and the Middle East for centuries.
Zeno founded_________, which urged people to accept calmly whatever life brought.
Pythagoras derived a formula to calculate the relationship between the sides of a__________.
Euclid wrote ________a textbook that became the basis for modern geometry.
Aristarchus theorized about a_________, or sun-centered, solar system.
Eratosthenes showed that the Earth was ________and accurately calculated its circumference.
Archimedes used principles of physics to make practical inventions, such as the lever and the pulley.
__________studied illnesses and cures and set ethical standards for medical care.