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Vashon-Maury Island Groundwater Protection Committee Resource Notebook. By: Valorie Cogswell, Kat Crowley-York, Evan Maxim, Erica Slotkin, Heather Spears. Vashon-Maury Island: Satellite Image. Vashon-Maury Island: Groundwater Management Area.

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Vashon-Maury Island Groundwater Protection Committee

Resource Notebook

By: Valorie Cogswell, Kat Crowley-York, Evan Maxim, Erica Slotkin, Heather Spears

slide2

Vashon-Maury

Island: Satellite Image

slide3

Vashon-Maury

Island: Groundwater

Management Area

slide6

Wellhead Protection =

Protection of Groundwater from Contamination

• Safe Drinking Water Act 1974

• Safe Drinking Water Act amendment of 1986

• Wellhead Protection Program of 1987.

Office of Wellhead Protection

slide7

• Source Water Assessment Protection Program

• Growth Management Act (GMA). Washington Administrative Code (WAC 365-190-080 ) designation of Critical Aquifer Recharge Areas

slide8

There are three categories of Critical Aquifer Recharge Areas:

Category I critical aquifer recharge areas include those mapped areas that King County has determined are highly susceptible to groundwater contamination and that are located within a sole source aquifer or a wellhead protection area.

Category II critical aquifer recharge areas include those mapped areas that King County has determined

• have a medium susceptibility to ground water contamination and are located in a sole source aquifer or a wellhead protection area; or

• are highly susceptible to ground water contamination and are not located in a sole source aquifer or wellhead protection area.

Category III critical aquifer recharge areas include those mapped areas that King County has determined have low susceptibility to groundwater contamination and are located over an aquifer underlying an island that is surrounded by saltwater. This includes all of Vashon and Maury Islands that is not either Category I or Category II.

Vashon- Maury Island CARAs

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Group A Water Systems:

• 15 or more connections

• 22 Group A Systems on Vashon-Maury Island

• Washington State Department of Health

Wellheads - Group A System, Vashon-Maury Island

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Group B Water Systems:

• Between 2 and 14 connections

• 100 + Group B Systems on Vashon-Maury Island

• King County Department of Health

Drawing Water from Aquifer - Group A System, Vashon Island

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Concerns:

• Treatment

• Cost management

• Operator errors

• Testing quality and quantity

Collection and Treatment - Group A System, Vashon Island

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Recommendations:

  • • Educate residents about the island’s the hydrology and groundwater cycle and how they can protect the quality and quantity of water resources
  • •Support integration of data with county GIS map systems (e.g. well depth and quality data, integrated with aquifer delineation areas)
  •  • Advocate that any updates to zoning ordinances (especially those that might increase density or change of use) incorporate the knowledge of critical aquifer delineation
  • • Work with small water system operators to ensure that good management techniques are in place, including emergency systems, operator training and frequent testing of flows and water quality
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Exempt well:  Wells exempt from the requirement to obtain a water right/permit from Department of Ecology.  These are usually wells for single-family domestic use that consume less than 5,000 gallons per day.  By Department of Health practices, an exempt well serves 6 or fewer homes.

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Conclusion and Recommendations:

• Collect more water quality data on individual residents’ properties where possible through Community Education Program

• Educate well owners on proper well maintenance and wellhead protection

• Decide on future exempt well usage and limit new construction

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All of Vashon-Maury Island’s potable water is pumped from groundwater reserves (i.e. an aquifer).

Growth on Vashon-Maury Island from 1990 – 2000 was 9%, and is expected to continue at 1% per year for the next 10 years.

Water levels in the aquifer are already dropping.

Why?
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Water Conservation – the act of using less water to complete the same day-to-day tasks.

Water Reuse (a.k.a. Use of Greywater) – the use of water that is otherwise clean and headed for the sewer (or septic system).

What?
regulatory context 1 of 3
Water Conservation / Reuse – Federal

Regulated by EPA (authority in Clean Water Act, Safe Drinking Water Act)

Focus on Water Conservation and Water Reclamation

Set standards for reclaimed water (class A, B, C, D)

Encourages water conservation

Regulatory Context (1 of 3)
regulatory context 2 of 3
Water Conservation / Reuse – State

Regulated by WDOE (authority in RCW 90.03, Water Code and RCW 90.46 Reclaimed water use).

Consistent consumption standards with the Federal regulations.

Focus is on encouragement, not so much on requirement.

Regulatory Context (2 of 3)
regulatory context 3 of 3
Water Conservation / Reuse – King County

Regulated by King County Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and Department of Health.

Primary focus on consistency with State / Federal requirements.

Support a variety of programs intended to address regional groundwater concerns.

Regulatory Context (3 of 3)
water conservation individuals
Water Conservation & Individuals
  • Easy things to do to conserve:
    • Fix Leaks
    • Water Conserving Appliances
    • Garden Design / Irrigation
water conservation small utilities cities ashland or
20,000 people, approximately 2.5 to 6.5 million gallons a day (depending on season) consumption (150 gallons per day, per person.

Initiated leak repair, corrosion control program, conservation-based water rates, a high-efficiency showerhead replacement program, and toilet retrofits and replacement.

9 years later, Ashland has reduced its water demand by 395,000 gallons per day

Water Conservation & Small Utilities / Cities – Ashland, OR
water reuse individuals
Water Reuse & Individuals
  • Easy(er) ways to reuse water:
    • Rain barrels
    • Greywater reuse through installation of plumbing valves
    • Capture of “greywater” septic water for irrigation
water reuse utilities cities
Water Reuse & Utilities / Cities
  • Programs are generally focused on “blackwater” reclamation
    • Normal treatment (Primary & Secondary) + Advanced Treatment (Fuzzy Filter, Microfiltration, Reverse Osmosis)
    • Used to irrigate fields, parks, other areas where human consumption is unlikely
recommendations for vashon maury island
Recommendations for Vashon – Maury Island
  • Increase public awareness and education about water conservation / reuse.
  • Focus on community based solutions to existing problems (i.e. water reclamation programs, incentives for conservation / water reuse).
slide47

Green Gardening,

Soil Management, Pesticides,

Herbicide, and Fertilizer Use

slide48

Environmental Protection Agency

• The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)

• The Pesticide Registration Improvement Act (PRIA)

slide49

Revised Code of Washington - RCW

• Title 15: Agriculture and Marketing – chapter 15.58: Washington Pesticide Control Act

• Title 17: Weeds, Rodents, and Pests – chapter 17.21: Washington Pesticide Application Act

• Title 70: Public Health and Safety – chapter 70.102: Hazardous Substance Information

• Title 70: Public Health and Safety – chapter 70.104: Pesticides-Health Hazards

• Title 70: Public Health and Safety – chapter 70.105: Hazardous Waste Management

• Title 70: Public Health and Safety – chapter 70.105D: Hazardous Waste Cleanup-Model Toxics Control Act

slide50

Washington Administrative Code - WAC

•  16-200: Fertilizers

•   16-201: Fertilizer Bulk Storage and Operational Area Containment Rules

•   16-228 General Pesticide Rules

•   16-229: Secondary and Operational Area Containment for Bulk Pesticides

•   16-231: Restricted Use Herbicides

•   16-233: Worker Protection Standards – subsections 16-233-200 through 16-233-255: Standards for Pesticide Handlers

slide51

Local Regulation

•   Code of the King County Board of Health: Title 7: Pesticides

•  Code of the King County Board of Health: Title 11: Hazardous Chemicals

•   King County's 1999 Integrated Pest Management Executive Order

slide56

The principles behind IPM STAR certification

• Knowledge

•   Monitoring and inspection

•   Action only when necessary

•   Documented performance

•   Least-toxic options

•   Effective pest management

•   Continuous improvement

•  Communication and outreach

•   Reduction in health and environmental risk is the bottom line

slide57

City of Seattle Pilot Projects

•  Heat weeding via boiling water and/or steam

•  Flame weeding

•  Compost tea

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Local challenges:

•  Weeds

•  Funguses

•  Insects (European Crane Fly)

slide59

•  Get kids involved – field trips, assemblies, hands-on workshops and homework assignments, 'Pesticide awareness day', etc.

•   Create an IPM factsheet and require that it be distributed by all businesses that sell pest-control chemicals

•  Require all businesses that sell pesticides to vend non-chemical alternatives

•  Fund educational workshops for home and business owners

•   Continue monitoring ground and surface water

•   Bring the community together over the issue – host a 'Green Gardening Fair' every summer