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Chapter 3 Biomolecules pages 53-73. 99% of the mass of most cells is H, O, N, and C These are the smallest elements that can form 1,2,3 and 4 bonds. Required in grams/day Required in milligrams or less/day. Biomolecules are complex, but are made up of simpler components.

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slide1

Chapter 3 Biomolecules pages 53-73

99% of the mass of most cells is H, O, N, and C

These are the smallest elements that can form 1,2,3 and 4 bonds.

Required in grams/day

Required in milligrams

or less/day

slide3

Proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides and

lipids are the most abundant biomolecules

slide4

Biomolecules are compounds of carbon

Carbon atoms form 4 tetrahedral single bonds.

Two carbon atoms sharing a single bond can

rotate around the single bond.

slide5

Two carbon atoms sharing a double bond

are closer and cannot rotate about the

double bond. The carbons and the

atoms bound to them form a plane.

slide6

Biomolecules are often made of carbon

backbones with added functional groups,

referred to as “R” groups

slide8

Functional groups can have chirality

The central carbon (a-carbon) is a chiral center

slide12

Argininimide (colored) stereospecifically

fitting within an RNA a pocket (grey)

slide14

Five main types of reactions in living cells

  • oxidation-reductions
  • cleavage and formation of C-C bond
  • internal rearrangements
  • group transfers
  • condensations- the joining of
  • monomers via the elimination of water
slide16

Reactions are catalyzed by enzymes in order to build biomolecules

(anabolism, requires energy) and to degrade biomolecules (catabolism, produces energy).

Figure 1-15 page 12

slide17

ATP synthesis is the central goal of catabolism

Figure 1-10

Page 10

Terminal phosphoryl (shaded) can then be

hydrolyzed.

slide19

ATP hydrolysis can then be coupled with other

reactions to produce a favorable overall reaction .

Figure 1-9

Page 9

slide20

Pairs of electrons and hydrogens are often

transferred in an oxidation-reduction

slide21

Cleavage and formation of C-C bond occurs

via nucleophilic substitution reactions

slide22

Internal rearrangements occur due to

sequential electron transfers

slide25

Amino acids, nucleic acids, sugars and lipids

are the basic building blocks of biomolecules