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“The Times they are a-changin’.” Bob Dylan. 1960s: An Era of Social Change Vickie Looser. ’60s: An Era of Social Change. Latinos fight for change Native Americans struggle for equality African-Americans lead the civil rights movement Women’s movement pushes for equality

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the times they are a changin bob dylan

“The Times they are a-changin’.” Bob Dylan

1960s: An Era of Social Change

Vickie Looser

60s an era of social change
’60s: An Era of Social Change
  • Latinos fight for change
  • Native Americans struggle for equality
  • African-Americans lead the civil rights movement
  • Women’s movement pushes for equality
  • Rebellious youth embrace counterculture
  • Counterculture impacts fashion, fine arts, and social attitudes
latinos fight for change
Latinos Fight for Change
  • Large, diverse group of Spanish-speaking Americans
  • 9 million by 1970
  • Encounter ethnic prejudice and discrimination in jobs and housing
  • Live in segregated barrios or neighborhoods.
  • 50% higher rate of poverty and joblessness than whites

empaz.org/marcelo/ images/latinos.JPG

latinos demand respect
Latinos demand Respect
  • Cesar Chavez led United Farm Workers Movement to improve pay and working conditions for farm workers
  • “Brown power” movements increase cultural pride
  • Bilingual Education of 1968 funds bilingual and cultural heritage programs
  • Young Mexicans adopt Chicano as symbol of ethnic pride
  • Organize politically

usinfo.state.gov/usa/ civilrights/a0423003.htm

www.ufw.org/ cecchronsp.htm

native americans unite
Native Americans Unite
  • Poorest Americans
  • Highest unemployment rate
  • Health Problems: tuberculosis, alcoholism
  • Termination policies to assimilate fail in 1950s
  • Protesters demand reform

www.fcvb.org/ html/npeople.html

african americans fight jim crow system
African-Americans fight Jim Crow System
  • Leaders in the Civil Rights Movement
  • 1950s: Fight against segregation
  • Brown v. Topeka Board of Education orders segregation in public schools, no longer “separate but equal” doctrine
  • Resistance in Southern states: de jure segregation
  • 1957 crisis in Little Rock to oppose integration of Central High School
civil rights 1950s
Civil Rights 1950s
  • 1954: Montgomery Bus Boycott Begun by Rosa Parks
  • Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. helped to lead the Montgomery movement

www.africanamericans.com/IHaveADream.htm

civil rights 1960s
Civil Rights 1960s
  • 1960 Sit-ins at segregated lunch counters
  • Freedom riders attacked in Anniston, Alabama
  • Integration of college campuses
  • Birmingham’s Children’s Crusades for racial justice
  • President Kennedy uses federal troops to force desegregation of U of AL
  • Medgar Evars killed in Mississippi

education.ua.edu/civilrights/tuscaloosa/album.html

i have a dream
“I Have a Dream”
  • 1963 March on Washington
  • King’s speech appealed for peace and racial harmony
  • President Kennedy assassinated, President Johnson endorsed Civil Rights Bill
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964 prevented discrimination to all areas of public accommodations
freedom summer 1964
Freedom Summer, 1964
  • SNCC organized voter registration project
  • Selma-to-Montgomery march to promote voting rights movement
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965 eliminated the literacy test

www.southernregion.fs.fed.us/.../info-mac-projects.htm

changes in the civil rights movement
Changes in the Civil Rights Movement
  • Northern de facto segregation resulted in urban violence
  • Race riots in Harlem, Watts
  • Demands for economic equality of opportunity in jobs, housing, and education
  • LBJ promotes his War on Poverty to establish his Great Society Program
new voices in civil rights
New Voices in Civil Rights
  • Malcolm X and Black Muslims promote Black Pride
  • “Ballots or bullets” became new slogan
  • Broke with Nation of Islam and Elijah Muhammad
  • Preached black superiority and separation from whites
  • Assassinated in 1965

www.krref.krefeld.schulen.net/referate/englisch/r0439t00.htm

radicalism in civil rights
Radicalism in Civil Rights
  • Black Panthers organized in 1966 to fight police brutality
  • Advocated taking control of communities in which Blacks lived, full employment, and decent housing
  • Adopted Mao Zedong’s slogan “Power flows out of the barrel of a gun”
  • Feared by whites who objected to revolutionary rhetoric

www.congregationofcoolkids.com/greenlantern.htm

1968 turning point in civil rights
1968: Turning Point in Civil Rights
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. assassinated in Memphis in April
  • Urban rioting in major cities
  • Kerner Commission stated major cause of urban rioting to be white racism
  • Civil Rights Act of 1968 banned discrimination in housing
civil rights gains by 1970
Civil Rights Gains by 1970
  • 24th Amendment banned Poll Tax
  • African-Americans expressed greater pride in their racial identity
  • More African Americans in movies, television shows, and commercials
  • 2/3 of African Americans registered to vote
  • Increase in African Americans holding elected office
  • Affirmative action programs promoted hiring of groups who suffered discrimination in the past
women fight for equality
Women Fight for Equality
  • Feminism promoted economic, political, and social equality with men
  • 1961 Presidential Commission reported wage discrimination in the workplace
  • Women inspired by civil rights and antiwar movements
  • Women shared in “consciousness-raising” sessions

www.bol.ucla.edu/~aferrara/Women.htm

the feminine mystique
The Feminine Mystique
  • Betty Friedan’s book exposed discontent of U. S. women
  • Women’s Liberation movement achieved political and social gains for women

www.ktg-minden.de/msrap2000/fp60iger.htm

now opposed sex discrimination
NOW opposed sex discrimination
  • Urged creation of more child care facilities and improved educational opportunities for women
  • Pressured EEOC to enforce ban on gender discrimination in hiring
  • Staged protest at Miss America pageant
  • Gloria Steinem founded National Women’s Political Caucus to encourage women to seek political office
  • 1972 Ban on gender discrimination in higher education

www.now.org/cgi-bin/store/MS-NR.html

roe v wade 1973
Roe v. Wade, 1973
  • Supreme Court ruled women had the right to choose an abortion in first three months of pregnancy
  • Americans divided over abortion issue

www.ajc.com/living/content/living/special/roewade

equal rights amendment
Equal Rights Amendment
  • Guaranteed “equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.”
  • Sparked fierce opposition
  • Phyllis Schlafly led Stop-ERA campaign
  • Ratified by 35 states, but needed 38
  • Failed in ratification movement that ended in 1982

www.sd4history.com/Unit9/era.htm

gains by women s movement
Gains by Women’s Movement
  • Opened up new opportunities for American women
  • Created new opportunities in education, employment, and politics
  • Women viewed their jobs as lifetime careers
  • “Glass ceiling” recognized as an invisible, but real resistance to promoting women into top positions

www.cvhs.com/tgarrity/.../CR32003/Cacalicr3/page%205.htm

tune in turn on drop out timothy leary
“Tune in, turn on, drop out.”—Timothy Leary
  • Youth embrace Counterculture
  • Hippies criticize American materialism, technology, and war
  • Many chose to protest by leaving society to live in communes

www.stedwards.edu/science/yohanan/.../photographs.html

age of aquarius
Age of Aquarius
  • Desire an idyllic setting of peace, love and harmony
  • Embrace rock ‘n’ roll music, outrageous clothes, and liberal use of drugs
  • Experiment with marijuana and LSD (acid)

www.stewartfamilykeepsakes.com/Photos.html

do your own thing
“Do your own thing.”
  • Hippies rejected the establishment by wearing outrageous clothes
  • Long hair and beards for men
  • Ragged jeans, tie-dyed T-shirts, and surplus military garments
  • Beads and Native American ornaments

www.jeffbickford.com/halloween/1998/default.htm

hippies adopt communal lifestlyes
Hippies adopt communal lifestlyes
  • Reject conventional home life
  • Adopt group living arrangements
  • Live together in cooperation and harmony
  • Escape to rural communes or crowd together in urban “crash pads”
  • Hippie Capital—Haight-Ashbury district in San Francisco

www.strangeroad.com/bucyrus/Haight-Ashbury.htm

lifestyle turns to violence and disillusioment
Lifestyle turns to violence and disillusioment
  • Youths embrace new and different religious experiences
  • Zen Buddhism offered enlightenment though meditation, self-contemplaation, and intuition
  • Spiritual guru Maharishi Mahesh Yogi of India influenced many to embrace transcendental meditation
  • Communities change to violence and disillusionment
  • Charles Manson and his “family” kill 5 in Hollywood
  • Widespread use of drugs led to overdoses, drug dependence, and mental and physical breakdowns
  • Rock singer Janis Joplin and guitarist Jimi Hendrix died of drug overdoses
  • Hippies ran out of resources to support themselves and turn to panhandling, welfare, and food stamps
a changing culture
A Changing Culture
  • Andy Warhol led rise of pop art
  • Bright silk-screen portraits of soup cans, Marilyn Monroe and other icons of mass culture
  • New art built around popular culture

www.brinkmann-literatur.de/Pop-Art3.html

www.artist-studio-phuket.com/.../pop-andy-warhol-campbells-soup

new fashions
New Fashions
  • Longer hair, beards, mustaches for men
  • Colorful and comfortable clothes for women
  • Blue jeans become wardrobe staple for everyone

www.backwardglances.com/groovyGear.htm

www.partypants.fsnet.co.uk/fd_70smale.htm

british invasion by the beatles
British Invasion by the Beatles
  • Rock ‘n’ roll developed from African-American rhythm and blues music
  • Captivated the teenagers of the 1950s but evolved
  • Led by the popularity of The Beatles
  • Inspired numerous other bands
woodstock art and music fair
Woodstock Art and Music Fair
  • August, 1969 in upstate New York
  • Free music festival for 3 days and nights
  • 400,000 show up for “Human Be-in”
  • Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Joe Cocker, Joan Baez, the Grateful Dead, and Jefferson Airplane appeared on stage

www.sea.fi/esitykset/syksy98/musiikki.html

changing social attitudes
Changing Social Attitudes
  • Sexual Revolution: view sexual behavior and human relationships more casually
  • Mass culture openly address former taboo subjects
  • Divorce rate doubled
  • Homosexual organizations openly fight for equal rights
  • Hollywood produces more sexually explicit films results in rating system for movies
changes spawn conservative backlash
Changes spawn conservative backlash
  • Casual and permissive social behavior condemned by many
  • Counterculture and antiwar movement perceived as promoting lawlessness and chaos
  • Conservative backlash helped to elect Richard Nixon
bibliography
Bibliography
  • Danzer, Gerald A. et al. The Americans: Reconstruction through the 20th Century. Dallas: McDougal Little, 1999.
  • Pictures retrieved from Google.com/Images
1960s an era of change

1960s: An era of change

Vickie Looser

Summer, 2004