The effects of creatine supplementation on anaerobic exercise performance
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The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Anaerobic Exercise Performance. By: Nick Wall & Jeff Rothstein. Outline. Physiological Introduction Effects of Creatine Supplementation Experiment results Performance Dosage Conclusion. Introduction. Anaerobic exercise performance:

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The effects of creatine supplementation on anaerobic exercise performance l.jpg

The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Anaerobic Exercise Performance

By: Nick Wall & Jeff Rothstein


Outline l.jpg
Outline Exercise Performance

  • Physiological Introduction

  • Effects of Creatine Supplementation

  • Experiment results

    • Performance

    • Dosage

  • Conclusion


Introduction l.jpg
Introduction Exercise Performance

  • Anaerobic exercise performance:

    • Maintained for very short duration

    • Muscular fatigue & exhaustion reached

    • Energy requirement met by ATP


Introduction cont l.jpg
Introduction (cont.) Exercise Performance

  • ATP + ATPase (enzyme)  ADP + Pi + energy

    • ATP used for energy produces ADP

    • PCr high energy molecule

      • Used to regenerate ATP

    • ATP and PCr limited in body

      • Depleted quickly during anaerobic performance

      • Limit affects duration

    • PCr+ ADP + H+  ATP + Cr


Introduction cont5 l.jpg
Introduction (cont.) Exercise Performance

  • 3 energy systems in the human body:

    • ATP-PCr system

    • Glycolytic system

    • Oxidative system


Atp pcr system l.jpg
ATP-PCr system Exercise Performance

  • Immediate fuel sources are ATP, PCr, and ADP

  • ADP is reformed into ATP by PCr or another ADP molecule

  • Creatine kinase breaks PCr into Pi and Cr

  • Pi is paired with ADP forming new ATP

  • Lasts 10-30 seconds

    (Linderman, Redondo, Wilmore)


Glycolytic system l.jpg
Glycolytic System Exercise Performance

  • Glucose found in blood and glycogen stored in muscles or liver

    • Converted to glucose-6-phosphate

  • Anaerobic Glycolysis

    • 12 enzymatic reactions

      • Breakdown glycogen to lactic acid without oxygen

  • Net gain - Glucose yields 2 ATP, Glycogen yields 3 ATP

  • Lasts 20-120 seconds – high intensity exercise


Oxidative system l.jpg
Oxidative System Exercise Performance

  • 3 Processes to produce ATP:

    • Aerobic glycolysis

    • Krebs Cycle

    • Electron Transport Chain

  • Slow in producing ATP

  • Tremendous energy-yielding capacity

  • Used in endurance events

    (Wilmore)


Creatine supplementation effects on body pcr l.jpg
Creatine Supplementation Effects on Body PCr Exercise Performance

  • PCr occurs naturally in the muscles of the body

  • Creatine obtained through diet

    (Chwalbinska-Moneta, Redondo)

    • Increased levels of dietary creatine

      • Increase levels of PCr in the muscles???

      • Increase synthesis of ATP???

PCr levels high?


Creatine supplementation effects on body pcr cont l.jpg
Creatine Supplementation Effects on Body PCr (cont.) Exercise Performance

  • Studies suggest creatine supplementation

    • Increases levels of PCr in the muscles

      (Burke, Hamilton, Mujika, Tarnopolsky)

    • Increasing PCr in the body results in

      • More ATP produced during high intensity exercise.

      • Useful Force

        • Increases in strength?

        • Increases in speed?

  • Creatine = ergogenic aid

    (Hamilton, Ostojic, Redondo, Tarnopolsky)


Summary of experiments on results l.jpg
Summary of Experiments on Results Exercise Performance

Forgot my creatine this morning!

  • Results vary proving creatine as ergogenic aid

    • Positive results for power increase

    • Delayed onset of fatigue

    • Mixed results on increases of speed

    • Mixed results on decreased sprint times

  • Creatine proven effective

    • Proper dosages

Low PCr = Low ATP = Less energy = Slower start?


Summary cont l.jpg
Summary (cont.) Exercise Performance

  • Tests performed

    • Creatine increased power

    • Creatine decreased fatigue

    • Tests producing negative results

      • Protocol durations too long

      • Once exceeding immediate energy system capabilities

        • Non-oxidative system used primarily

          • Doesn’t use PCr


Results l.jpg
Results Exercise Performance

  • Creatine supplementation

    • Increase in PCr concentrations in muscles

    • More PCr to re-synthesize ATP

    • Dosage affects results

      • 20g / day * 5-8 days

        • Mixed results

      • Appears high dosage for 5-8 days

        • Enough time for muscles to increase PCr concentrations

      • 7.7g / day * 21 days

        • Significant increase in power

        • Significant delay of fatigue

    • Amount and time frame consumed main factor


Results14 l.jpg
Results Exercise Performance

  • Studies yielding no results

    • Affected by dosage and/or duration

    • Trained or not

    • Most studies on athletes

      • Different results compared to athlete vs. non-athlete

      • Creatine might not affect the already trained individual

  • Overall

    • Supplementation needs to follow dosage and duration

    • Protocol for testing must utilize immediate energy system (>10-30 seconds)


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Table of Results Exercise Performance


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Non-Performance Related Findings Exercise Performance

  • Adverse Effects

    • Protective effects

    • Gastrointestinal disturbances

    • Muscle cramps

    • Liver and kidney dysfunction

    • Well controlled studies almost nonexistent

      (Poortmans)


Non performance related findings17 l.jpg
Non-Performance Related Findings Exercise Performance

  • Body Composition

    • 28d period

      • Used Phosphagen HP (creatine + glucose/taurine electrolyte supplement)

      • Body weight increased

      • No differences in % of total body water

        (Kreider)

    • 42d period

      • Body mass increased

        • Not attributed to water retention

        • Muscle growth

          (Francaux)


Conclusion l.jpg
Conclusion Exercise Performance

  • Muscle cells have 2 high energy substrates

    • ATP and PCr

    • ATP fuels the working muscle

    • Converted to ADP during use

    • PCr converts ADP back to ATP

    • Provides more immediate energy

  • Immediate energy system

    • First 10-30 seconds on maximal sprint


Conclusion cont l.jpg
Conclusion (cont.) Exercise Performance

  • Short term use

    • <6 days does not affect performance

  • Dosage

    • <20g during short term use results in no change

    • Most important factor

      • >20g/day for more than 5 days provided results

      • Low dose for long term provides results


Questions l.jpg
Questions? Exercise Performance


References l.jpg
References Exercise Performance

  • Burke, Darren G., Shawn Silver, Laurence E. Holt, Truis Smith-Palmer, Christopher J. Culligan, and Philip D. Chilibeck. The Effect of Continuous Low Dose Creatine Supplementation on Force, Power, and Total Work. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2000; 10: 235-244

  • Burke, Louise M., David B. Pyne, and Richard D. Telford. Effect of Oral Creatine Supplementation on Single-Effort Sprint Performance in Elite Swimmers. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 1996; 6: 222-233

  • Chwalbinska-Moneta, Jolanta. Effect of Creatine Supplementation on Aerobic Performance and Anaerobic Capacity in Elite Rowers in the Course of Endurance Training. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2003; 13: 173-183a

  • Delecluse, C, R. Diels, M. Goris. Effect of Creatine Supplementation on Intermittent Sprint Running Performance in Highly Trained Athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2003; 17: 446-454

  • Francaux, Marc, J.R. Poortmans. Effect of Training and Creatine Supplement on Muscle Strength and Body Mass. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 1999; 80: 165-168

  • Hamilton, Karyn L., Michael C. Meyers, William A. Skelly, and Robert J. Marley. Oral Creatine Supplementation and Upper Extremity Anaerobic Response in Females. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Metabolism 2000; 10: 277-289

  • Juhn, Mark S. Oral Creatine Supple-mentation: Separating Fact From Hype. The Physician and Sportsmedicine 1999; 27: 47-61

  • Kreider, R.B, M. Ferreira, M. Wilson. Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Body Composition, Strength, and Sprint Performance. Occupational Health and Industrial Medicine 1998; 38: 203

  • Hoffman, J.R, J.R. Stout, M.J. Falvo, J. Kang, N.A. Ratamess. Effect of Low-Dose, Short-Duration Creatine Supplementation on Anaerobic Exercise Performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2005; 19: 260-264


References cont l.jpg
References (cont.) Exercise Performance

  • Linderman, Jon K. and Kristin L. Gosselink. The Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate Ingestion of Exercise Performance. Sports Medicine 1994; 18(2): 75-80

  • Maughan, Ronald J. Creatine Supple-mentation and Exercise Performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 1995; 5: 94-101

  • Mujika, I., S. Padilla, J. Ibanez, M. Izquierdo, and E. Gorostiaga. Creatine supplementation and sprint performance in soccer players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2000; by American College of Sports Medicine

  • Ostojic, Sergej M. Creatine Supple-mentation in Young Soccer Players. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2004; 14: 95-103

  • Poortmans, J.R, M. Francaux. Adverse Effects of Creatine Supplementation: Fact or Fiction? Sports Medicine 2000; 30: 155-170

  • Redondo, Diego R., Elizabeth A. Dowling, Bryan L. Graham, Anthony L. Almada, and Melvin H. Williams. The Effect of Oral Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation on Running Velocity. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 1996; 6: 213-221

  • Tarnopolsky, Mark A. and Dan P. MacLennan. Creatine Monohydrate Supple-mentation Enhances High-Intensity Exercise Performance in Males and Females. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2000; 10: 452-463

  • Toler, Stephen M. Creatine Is an Ergogen for Anaerobic Exercise. Nutrition Reviews 1997; 55: 21-23

  • Wilmore, Jack H and David L. Costill. Physiology of Sport and Exercise. 2004: 122-130


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