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SOC101Y PowerPoint Presentation

SOC101Y

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SOC101Y

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  1. SOC101Y Introduction to Sociology Professor Adam Green Lecture #11 Gender Inequality 9 Jan 13

  2. GENDER INEQUALITY in the LABOUR MARKET Inequalities in the labour market can take a number of forms: • Disparities in wages by sex • Vertical occupational segregation • Horizontal occupational segregation

  3. Ratio of Female to Male Earnings, by Marital Status, Canada, 1976-2008 Never-married Ratio of female to male earnings All Married Year 1976 1992 2008 Note: At the 1976-2008 rate of improvement, women’s earnings will equal men’s earnings in 2088.

  4. 2 Short Films http://projects.chass.utoronto.ca/soc101y/brym/movies.html

  5. THEORIES OF GENDER INEQUALITY IN THE LABOUR MARKET 1. OCCUPATIONAL SEGREGATION 2. HUMAN CAPITAL DIFFERENCES 3. SOCIAL CAPITAL DIFFERENCES 4. STATISTICAL DISCRIMINATION/SEXISM

  6. OCCUPATIONAL SEGREGATION 1. Internal Labour Markets / Short promotion ladders 2. Horizontal Occupational Segregation / Incomparable Worth

  7. HUMAN CAPITAL A composite measure of a worker’s: • Commitment to the job • Educational attainment • Job experience

  8. PENALTIES TO HUMAN CAPITAL FOR WOMEN • Career disruptions owing to pregnancy • Child & elderly care • Domestic labour • Non-standard work

  9. Percentage of Men and Women in Paid LabourForce Male-Female Difference, Rich Countries, 2008 Canada, 1946-2010 Percentage Men Women 1946 2010

  10. Paid and Unpaid Work, Men and Women, 25-54 yrs., Canada, 1985 and 2005 Hours per day • Men’s paid up 12 mins/day • Men’s unpaid up 24 mins/day • Women’s paid up 66 mins/day • Women’s unpaid down 30 mins/day • Men’s total up 36 min/day • Women’s total up 36 min/day

  11. Public Spending on Family Benefits, 2005 (cash, services and family tax breaks as percent of GDP) Percent

  12. Child Care in Canada, by Province, 2007-08 Percent of children between the ages of 0 and 12 for whom there is a regulated child care space Province (government child care spending per child in parentheses)

  13. SHORT FILM: Statistical Discrimination http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CGc0KoudrEA

  14. Women as percent of total Women in National Parliaments, 2009, in percent (n=147) World mean @ 18.6% Canada 47th @ 22.1% USA 71st @ 16.8%

  15. Women in Canadian Political Parties, 1992 (in percent) Percent Function