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PRACTICE TYPES Movement classification is often used to determine the most effective ways to learn and practise skills. The conditions in which a skill is learned or practised should also replicate the circumstances of actual performance as closely as possible. VARIED PRACTICE

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practice types
PRACTICE TYPES

Movement classification is often used to determine the most effective ways to learn and practise skills. The conditions in which a skill is learned or practised should also replicate the circumstances of actual performance as closely as possible.

varied practice
VARIED PRACTICE
  • Open skills are best practised in a constantly changing, unpredictable environment.
  • This allows the performer to develop the necessary perceptual and decision making skills.
  • The player will learn to adapt the skill to suit the situation. These adaptations are stored and the experience or schema of the player is expanded.
  • This type of practice improves selective attention, making information processing faster and more efficient.
  • Before introducing varied practice a novice usually learns a skill in a fixed environment, building up a motor programme of the skill. This allows the learner to groove or over-learn the skill, which can be adapted later.
fixed practice
FIXED PRACTICE
  • Closed skills require fixed practice because the environment in which they are performed remains the same and, once perfected, the movement pattern never changes.
  • These stereotyped actions should be grooved to the point of being habtual.
part practice
PART PRACTICE
  • Low organisation skills can be broken down into sub-routines.
  • Part practice allows the performer to work on an isolated sub-routine in order to perfect it.
  • Part practice reduces the possibility of overload, so is useful with beginners.
  • It allows a performer to focus on a specific sub-routine and can, therefore, be useful in correcting faulty technique.
  • It can also be useful with complex skills or with those involving an element of danger.
  • Gymnasts and trampolinists use chaining to learn and link the movements or sub-routines of their sequences. It is important for them to learn the movements in the correct order.
  • Backward chaining is sometimes used when teaching skills such as throwing events in athetics, eg. javelin
whole practice
WHOLE PRACTICE
  • High organisation skills need to be taught as a whole as the sub-routines cannot be separated without disrupting the flow of the movement eg. Sprinting, dribbling.
  • Ideally all skills should be taught as a whole as this allows the learner to develop a feel of the skill. This is termed kinaesthesis.
whole part whole practice
WHOLE-PART-WHOLE PRACTICE
  • This involves presenting the whole skill to the performer.
  • The sub-routines are then practised separately.
  • Finally the whole skill is reintroduced.
skill simplification
SKILL SIMPLIFICATION
  • If a skill is complex, high in organisation and/or dangerous the task should be made easier. This is called task simplification.
  • Eg. A bicycle could be fitted with stabilisers.

A harness could be used to assist a trampolinist in learning somersaults.

Children may play short tennis before progressing to tennis.

Small sided games of hockey/ football may be introduced before progressing to the full game